Works Cited

Where to Start

This is the best introduction to the Bible in Syriac, though there is now a second edition:


This little-known article by Michel van Esbroeck provides an excellent bibliographic guide to all the oriental versions of the Bible, including Syriac.


Syriac Bibles on the Web

  • The most useful online tool for the study of the Syriac Peshitta New Testament is the Dukhrana Peshitta Tool, which gives full parsing information and multiple English translations through it's "analyze" links. The English translations include Etheridge, Murdock, Lamsa, and the KJV.

  • The STEP Bible at Tyndale House, Cambridge, offers a very flexible interface in which a number of ancient versions, including Syriac, can be viewed in parallel. Recent English translations, such as the ESV, are also available.

  • The Unbound Bible at Biola University in Los Angeles, allows you to view parallel Biblical versions, both ancient and modern.

  • The Bible Tool, a creation of the American Bible Society, the Society of Biblical Literature, and the Crosswire Bible Society, allows you to view the Peshitta (and other ancient versions) in parallel with translations into modern languages.


Scholarly Edition

  • The Leiden Peshitta Insitute's scholarly editions (without apparatus) can be searched through the Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon (CAL) (alongside a number of other Syriac texts).


Mosul Bible


Peshitta Old Testament


Peshitta New Testament


Old Syriac Gospels


Harklean New Testament


Syro-Hexapla Old Testament


Christian Palestinian Aramaic



The Diatessaron of Tatian, dating from the late second century, though probably originally composed in Syriac, no longer survives in Syriac. There are only quotations from it in a number of different Syriac authors, most notably in Ephrem's Commentary on the Diatessaron, but also in Aphrahat, the Liber Graduum, Isho'dad of Merv, and even Rabbula of Edessa, a figure who opposed the use of the Diatessaron.  There may also be Diatessaronic influences on the Old Syriac Gospels and the Peshitta.

Though the original text of the Diatessaron no longer exists, the document had an influence on Gospel harmonies in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages from England in the West to Persia in the East.  Scholars have been able to look to Gospel Harmonies in a large number of languages in their attempt to reconstruct the Diatessaron.  These harmonies have been of interest to scholars on two levels: 1) their content, which may contain Diatessaronic readings (e.g., the great light which is present at the baptism of Jesus in Matthew 3:15-16 seems to be a Diatessaronic reading) and 2) their sequence/their arrangement of the events of the life of Jesus.

The following are Gospel Harmonies which are important for the study of the Diatessaron:








Other Instrumenta