Syriac Bible


Entire Bible (Peshitta)

G. Sionita (Paris Polyglot, 1645).

B. Walton (London Polyglot, 1657).

S. Lee (1823) > United Bible Societies (1979, + Apocrypha).

Urmia edition (1852) > Joseph de Qelayta/Trinitarian Bible Society (1913).

Mosul edition (1887–92) > Beirut (1951) [see Vosté, Studi e Testi 121 (1946)].


Old Testament


Leiden Peshitta Project: Sample Edition [Cant, .Tobit, IV Ezra] (1966).

Vetus Testamentum Syriace I. 1, Gen.-Exod.(1977).

I. 2 & II. 1b, Lev., Deut., Josh. (1991). II. 1a, Job (1982).

II. 2, Judges, Sam. (1978). II. 3, Psalms (1980).

II. 4, Kings (1976). II. 5, Prov., Wis., Qoh., Cant. (1979).

III. 1, Isaiah (1987).

III. 3, Ezekiel (1985). III. 4, XII Proph., Dan. (1980).

IV. 2, Chronicles (1998). IV. 6, Odes, Apocr.Pss, Pss.Sol., Tob., IV. 3, Apoc.Bar., IV Ezra (1973). 1(3) Ezra (1972).

Other critical editions:

Pentateuch (W. Barnes, 1914); Psalms (W. Barnes, 1904); Lamentations (B. Albrektson, 1963); Wisdom of Solomon (J. A. Emerton, 1959); Apocrypha (P. de Lagarde, 1861).


A. Ceriani, Codex Syro-Hexaplaris...(1874).

P. de Lagarde, Bibliothecae Syriacae...(1892).

W. Baars, New Syro-Hexaplaric Texts (1968).

A. Voobus, The Pentateuch in the Version of the Syro-Hexapla..(CSCO Subs.45 1975).

A. Voobus, The Book of Isaiah in the Version of the Syro-Hexapla..(CSCO Subs.68, 1983).

R.J. Hiebert, The Syrohexapla Psalter (1989).


A. Ceriani, in Monumenta Sacra et Profana 5 (1875). [For this version, see R.G. Jenkins, The OT Quotations of Philoxenus (CSCO Subs.84; 1989)].

Jacob of Edessa

For texts: W. Baars, Vetus Testamentum 18 (1968), 548–54; edition of Samuel by A. Salvesen (1999).

Christian Palestinian Aramaic

C. Muller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, A Corpus of Christian Palestian Aramaic, I: Old Testament and Apocrypha (1997).


New Testament

Diatessaron (excerpted from Ephrem's Commentary (ed. Leloir, 1963):

I. Ortiz de Urbina, Vetus Evangelium Syrorum: Diatessaron Tatiani (Madrid, 1967) [cp review by R. Murray, Heythrop Journal 10 (1969), 43f].

Old Syriac, Peshitta and Harklean Gospels

Comparative Edition, G. Kiraz (4 vols, Leiden, 1996).

Old Syriac

F.C. Burkitt, Evangelion da-Mepharreshe I-II (Cambridge, 1904) - based on C (a further folio of the Curetonian with Luke 16 is published by D. McConaughy, Biblica 68 (1987), 85–8).

A.S. Lewis, The Old Syriac Gospels (London, 1910) - based on S.

For early quotations: cp I. Ortiz de Urbina (above)

For quotations from Acts and Epistles, see J. Kerchensteiner, Der altsyrische Paulustext (CSCO 315, 1970), and Biblica 45 (1964), 63–74.

Whole NT:
  • British and Foreign Bible Society (London, 1920 and reprints)
  • United Bible Society (1979 edn: NT from Lee (1823); 1988– reprints: NT from BFBS edition)
  • The Aramaic New Testament (The Way International, New Knoxville, 1983) [Estrangelo script]
  • Pusey and Gwilliam, Tetraevangelium Syriacum (1901)
  • B. Aland and A. Juckel, Das Neue Testament in syrischer Ueberlieferung, I (Berlin, 1986) [= Catholic Epistles]; II. 1 (1991) [=Romans, I Cor.]; II. 2 (1995) [II Cor.-Col.]

Catholic Epistles (`Pococke Epistles'): J. Gwynn, Remnants of Later Syriac Versions (1909); Apocalypse (`Crawford Apocalypse'): J. Gwynn, (1897).

Whole NT:
  • J. White, Sacrorum Evangeliorum versio Syriaca Philoxeniana..(Oxford 1778)
  • ———, Actuum Apostolorum et Epistolarum...versio Syriaca Philoxeniana (Oxford 1799/1803)
  • B. Aland and A. Juckel, Das NT in syrischer Ueberlieferung [see above: Old Syriac]
  • A. Voobus, The Apocalypse in the Harklean Version (CSCO Subs 56, 1978)
Christian Palestinian Aramaic

C. Muller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, A Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic. IIA, IIB, The New Testament (1998).

A. Lewis and M. Gibson, The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (1899).


Translations of Peshitta (none very reliable!)

  • G.M. Lamsa (Philadelphia, 1957; London, 1961)
  • J. Murdock (NT; Boston/London, 1851)
  • A. Oliver (Pss; Boston, 1861)
  • W. Norton (NT Epp.; London, 1890)
  • Good English translation of Old Syriac Gospels by F.C. Burkitt (see above).



General surveys, OT and NT

B. Aland and S.P. Brock, Theologische Realenzyklopadie 6 (1980), 181–96.

S.P. Brock, Anchor Dictionary of the Bible 6 (1992), 794–9.

———, The Bible in the Syriac Tradition (SEERI Correspondence Course 1, Kottayam, 1989).

C. van Puyvelde, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Supplement 6 (1960), 834–84.

A. Voobus, Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary vol.(1976), 848–54.

M. van Esbroeck, in J. Krasovec (ed.), Interpretation of the Bible (Sheffield/Ljubljana, 1998).


Old Testament

J. Bloch, "Printed Editions of the Peshitta", AJSL 37 (1920/1).

S.P. Brock, "Jewish Traditions in Syriac Sources", JJS 30 (1979).

———, "A Palestinian Targum Feature in Syriac", JJS 46 (1995).

———, "The Peshitta Old Testament: Between Judaism and Christianity", Cristianesimo nella Storia 19 (1998), 483–502.

J. Cook, "Recent Developments in Peshitta Research", Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 15 (1989).

———, "Interpreting the Peshitta: A Survey of Recent Publications", Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages 17 (1991).

P. Dirksen, "The OT Peshitta", in M. J. Mulder (Ed), Miqra (1988), 255–97.

P. Dirksen and M. Mulder (eds), The Peshitta: Its Early Text and History (Leiden, 1988).

P. Dirksen and A. van der Kooij (eds), The Peshitta as a Translation (Leiden, 1995)

J.A. Emerton, "Unclean Birds and the Origin of the Peshitta", JSS 7 (1962).

A. Gelston, The Peshitta of the XII Prophets (1987).

M. Goshen-Gottstein, "Prolegomena to a Critical Edition of the Peshitta", Scripta Hierosolymitana 8 (1961).

———, "Peschitta und Targumim", in JSS 6 (1961) [Review of Voobus].

L. Haefeli, "Die Peschitta des AT" (Alttest.Abh. ll,l; 1927).

J. Joosten, "La Peshitta de l'Ancien Testament dans la recherche récente", Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 76 (1996), 385–95.

M.D. Koster, The Peshitta of Exodus (1977), parts I. c and VI.

———, "The Peshitta Revisited: A Reassessment of its Value as a Version", JSS 38 (1993).

D. Lane, The Peshitta of Leviticus (1994).

Y. Maori, The Peshitta version of the Pentateuch and early Jewish exegesis [Hebrew] (1975).

J. Perles, Meletemata Peschitoniana (1859).

J. Pinkerton, "Origin and Early History of the Syriac Pentateuch", JTS 15 (1914)

H.M. Szpek, Translation technique in the Peshitta to Job (1992).

R.A. Taylor, The Peshitta of Daniel (1994).

A. Voobus, Peschitta und Targumim des Pentateuchs (1958).

M. Weitzman, "From Judaism to Christianity: The Syriac Version of the Hebrew Bible", in J. Lieu, J. North and T. Rajak (eds), The Jews among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire (1992), 147–73.

———, Peshitta, "LXX and Targum", in P. Dirksen and A. van der Kooij (eds), The Peshitta as a Translation (1995), 51–84.

———, "Lexical Clues to the Composition of the OT Peshitta", in M. Geller and others (eds), Studia Aramaica (1995) 217–46.

———, "The Interpretative Character of the Syriac OT", in M. Saebo (ed), Hebrew Bible/Old Testament: the History of its Interpretation, I (1996), 587–611.

———, The Syriac Version of the Old Testament: An Introduction (Cambridge 1999).

P. Wernberg-Moller, Studia Theologica 15 (1961).

———, "Prolegomena to a Reexamination of the Pal.Targ. Fragments...and their Relationship to the Peshitta", JSS 7 (1962).

———, "Some Scribal and Linguistic Features of the Genesis Part of the Oldest Peshitta ms (BM Add.14425)", JSS 13 (1968).


New Testament

M. Black, "The Syriac Versional Evidence", in K. Aland (ed.), Die alten Uebersetzungen des NT (1972), 120–59.

T. Baarda, Essays on the Diatessaron (1994).

———, "The Syriac Versions of the NT", in B.D. Ehrman and M.W. Holmes (eds), The Text of the NT in Contemporary Research (1995), 97–112.

M-E. Boismard, Le Diatessaron de Tatien à Justin (1992).

S.P. Brock, "The Resolution of the Philoxenian/Harklean Problem", Essays in Honour of B.M. Metzger (1981).

———, "The Lost Old Syriac at Luke 1:35 and the Earliest Syriac Terms for the Incarnation", in W. Petersen (ed.), Gospel Traditions in the Second Century (1989), 117–31.

F.C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity (1904), ch.2.

J. Joosten, "West Aramaic Elements in the Old Syriac and Peshitta Gospels", JBL 110 (1991).

———, "The Syriac Language of the Peshitta and Old Syriac Versions of Matthew" (1996).

J.P. Lyon, Syriac Gospel Translations (CSCO Subs. 88, 1994).

B.M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the NT (1977), ch.1.

W. Petersen, Tatian's Diatessaron: Its Creation, Dissemination, Significance and History in Scholarship (Suppl.25 to Vigiliae Christianae, 1994).

———, "Diatessaron", in Anchor Dictionary of the Bible 2 (1992), 189–90.

A. Voobus, Studies in the History of the Gospel Text in Syriac, I-II (CSCO Subs. 3, 79; 1951, 1987).

———, Early Versions of the NT (1954).



mss: List of OT Peshitta Manuscripts (Peshitta Institute, Leiden, 1961).

J.T. Clemons, An Index of Syriac Manuscripts Containing the Epistles and Apocalypse (Studies and Documents 33, 1968).

early editions: E. Nestle, Syriac Grammar with Bibliography...(1889), 17–30 (of bibliography).



  • K.D. Jenner and P.G. Borbone, A Concordance to the OT in Syriac, I: The Pentateuch (1997)
  • W. Strothmann, Konkordanz zur syr. Bibel. Der Pentateuch (1986); Die Propheten (1984), 4 vols each; Die Mautbe (1995), 6 vols
  • ———, Konkordanz des syr. Koheletbuches (1973)
  • ———, Wortverzeichnis der apokryphen -deuterokanonischen Schriften des AT (1988)
  • N. Sprenger, Konkordanz zum syrischem Psalter (1976)
  • L. Techen, "Syr.-hebr. Glossar zu den Psalmen nach der Pe.", ZAW 17 (1987)
  • M. Winter, A Concordance to the Peshitta Version of Ben Sira (1976)
  • R. Smend, Griech.-Syr.-Hebr. Index zur Weisheit des Jesus Sirach (1907)


  • Anon., The Concordance to the Peshitta Version of the Aramaic NT (1985) [In fact, a word list, not a concordance]
  • G. Kiraz, A Computer-Generated Concordance to the Syriac New Testament (1993), 6 vols


T. Falla, A Key to the Peshitta Gospels, I: alaph to dalath (Leiden, 1991); II (2000).

W. Jennings, Lexicon to the Syriac NT (1926).

C. Schaaf, Lexicon syriacum concordantiale (Leiden, 1709).


S.P. Brock, C.T. Fritsch, and S. Jellicoe, A Classified Bibliography of the Septuagint (1973), 189–94 [OT books translated from Greek; i.e. Apocrypha, Syrohexapla, Jacob of Edessa and CPA].

P.B. Dirksen, "An Annotated Bibliography of the Peshitta OT" (1989) [supplement in P. Dirksen and A. van der Kooij, The Peshitta as a Translation (1995), 221–36].

C. Dogniez, Bibliography of the Septuagint 1970–1993 (1995), 303–306 [translation from Greek].

[See also C. Moss, Catalogue of Syriac Printed Books and Related Literature in the British Museum (1962), and S.P. Brock, Syriac Studies: a Classified Bibliography, 1960–1990 (1996), 43–62, and Parole de l'Orient 23 (1998), 261–67].