Syriac Liturgy


A. Baumstark, Comparative Liturgy (London, English translation 1958).

J.M. Hannsens, Institutiones liturgicae de ritibus orientlibus. 2–3, De missa rituum orientalium (Rome, 1930, 1932).

A. Raes, Introductio in liturgiam orientalem (Rome, 1947).

W. de Vries, Sakramententheologie bei den syrischen Monophysiten (OCA 125, 1940).

———, Nestorianern (OCA 133, 1947).




Sixth-century fragment: ed. R.H. Connolly, OC 12/14 (1923–4), 99–128.

Addai and Mari: oldest ms ed.+ English translation, W. Macomber, OCP 32 (1966), 335–71.

Critical ed. + English translation, A. Gelston, The Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari (Oxford, 1991).

English translation, B.D. Spinks (Grove Liturgical Study 24, 1980).

Theodore: critical ed. + English translation, J. Vadakkel, The East Syriac Anaphora of Mar Theodore of Mopsuestia (Kottayam, 1989).

Nestorius: critical ed. S. Naduthadam (diss. Paris, 1992).

The Syriac text of all three anaphoras can be found (e.g.) in the Urmia edition (1890), with English translation (London, 1893); another English translation by K.A. Paul and G. Mooken (Trichur, 1967).

Among the numerous studies (esp. of Addai and Mari):

  • S.Y.H. Jammo, La structure de la messe chaldeenne (OCA 207 (1979))
  • G. Vavanikunnel, Die eucharistische Katechese der Anaphora der Apostle Mar Addai und Mar Mari (Wurzburg, 1976)
  • T. Mannooramparampil, Anaphora and Post-Anaphora of the Syro-Malabar Qurbana (Kottayam, 1984)
  • P. Maniyattu, Heaven on Earth: The Theology of Liturgical Spacetime in the East Syrian Qurbana (Rome, 1995)


List of Anaphoras in A. Raes and others, Anaphorae Syriacae I.i (Rome, 1939), pp.xi-xiv; see also table in S.P. Brock, "Two Recent Editions of Syrian Orthodox Anaphoras", Ephemerides Liturgicae 102 (1988), 436–45. The series Anaphorae Syriacae contains:

I.i (1939): Timothy of Alexandria, Severus of Antioch. I.ii (1940): Gregory of Nazianzus, John Chrysostom, XII Apostles I-II.I.iii (1044): Dioscorus I-II, Cyril.

II.i (1951): Jacob of Serugh I-III, John Saba). II.ii (1953): James I-II, Gregory John).

II.iii (1973): Celestine, Peter III [= Sharrar], Thomas. III.i (1981): John of Bosra, Jacob of Edessa, Julius. Latin translations of many unpublished Anaphoras in Renaudot, Liturgiarum Orientalium Collectio II (reprinted 1970).

A.Y.Samuel, Anaphoras (Lodi, NJ, 1991). [Syriac text and facing English translation of 13 Anaphoras].


Sharrar: ed. Sauget in Anaph. Syr.II.iii (1973).

Important studies:

  • M. Hayek, Liturgie maronite: Histoire et textes eucharistiques (Tours, 1963)
  • P.E. Gemayel, Avant-Messe maronite: Histoire et structure (OCA 174, 1965)


For Melkite liturgical manuscripts in Syriac see C.Charon (= Karolevskij), Histoire des Patriarcats Melkites.., III (Rome, 1909), 30–41. Cp also J-M. Sauget, "Nouveaux fragments de rouleaux liturgiques byzantino-melkites en syriaque", Le Muséon 88 (1975), 5–30.



Texts and LT of all four rites in J.A. Assemani, Codex Liturgicus I-III (Rome, 1749–50; reprinted 1968); for the manuscript basis of these texts see J.M. Sauget, Gregorianum 54 (1973), 339–52. In general: J. Vellian (ed.), Studies on Syrian Baptismal Rites (Syrian Churches Series 6, 1973); S.P.Brock, The Holy Spirit in the Syrian Baptismal Tradition (Syrian Churches Series 9, 1979; T.M. Finn, Early Christian Baptism and the Catechumenate: West and East Syria (Collegeville, 1992).


Text e.g. in Urmia edition (1890), with English translation (London, 1893). English translation also in Paul and Mooken [see Anaphoras above].

German translation and study in G. Diettrich, Die Nestorianische Taufliturgie (Giessen, 1903).

Cp also J. Madey and G. Vavanikunnel, Taufe, den Kirchen des ostsyr. Ritenkreis (Einsiedeln, 1971)

F. Chiriyath, Taufliturgie des Syro-Malabarisches Ritus (Das ostliche Christentum NF 32, 1981)

J. Chalassery, The Holy Spirit and Christian Initiation (Rome, 1995).


Severus: ed. + English translation, A.Y. Samuel, The Sacrament of Holy Baptism according to the Ancient Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church (Hackensack, 1974); text alone: ed. Barsaum (Homs, 1950); ed. Konat (Pampakuda, 1979). English translation of Indian (Syro-Malankara) rite: M. Elenjikal, Baptism in the Malankara Church(Bangalore, 1974).

English translation of sanctification of water in oldest mss: S.P. Brock in OCP 37 (1971), 317–32. Structure of service in oldest mss: S.P. Brock, JTS 23 (1972), 16–64. Anointings: B. Varghese, Les onctions baptismales dans la tradition syrienne (CSCO 512, Subs.82, 1989).

Timothy: ed. + English translation, S.P. Brock, Le Muséon 63 (1970), 367–431.

Anon.: ed. + English translation, S.P. Brock, Parole de l'Orient 8 (1977/8), 311–46.


Jacob of Serugh: photographic ed. + French translation, A. Mouhanna, Les rites de l'initiation dans l'eglise maronite (OCA, 1978).

Revised text: Bkerke 1942.


Basil: ed. + Latin translation in J.A. Assemani, Codex Liturgicus III (Rome, 1758), 199–237.

Archaic short service: ed. + English translation, S.P.Brock, Parole de l'Orient 3 (1972), 119–30.




  • A. Raes, Le marriage...dans les églises d'Orient; J-G. van Overstraeten, Parole de l'Orient 8 (1977/8), 235–310 [marriage]
  • J. Azzi, Proche Orient Chretien 23 (1973), 284–321 [burial].


English translation, G.P. Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals (London, 1852; reprinted 1969), II, 244–321.

Cp J. Vellian (ed.), Crown, Veil, Cross: Marriage Rites (Syrian Churches Series 15, 1990); L. Edakalathur, The Theology of Marriage in the East Syrian Tradition (Rome, 1994?). S. Nedumthacady, Tumsa: The Syro-Malabar Funeral Ritual (Poona, 1976).


Editions + English translation: A.Y. Samuel (Hackensack, 1974).


English translation: The Mystery of Crowning according to the Maronite Antiochene Church (Diocese of St Maron, Washington, DC, 1985).




English translation, Badger, The Nestorians and their Rituals II, 322–50. Cp A. Raes, "Les ordinations dans le Pontifical Chaldéen", L'Orient Syrien 5 (1960), 63–80.


R. Graffin, "L'ordination du pretre dans le rite jacobite", Revue de l'Orient Chrétien 1 (1896), 1–36; B. de Smet, "Le rituel du sacre des évêques et des patriarches dans l'église syrienne d'Antioche", L'Orient Syrien 8 (1963), 165–212.


Cp M. Breydy, La doctrine syr-antiochienne sur le sacerdoce (Jounieh, 1977).




  • R. Taft, The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West (Collegeville, 1986)
  • J. Mateos, Les matines chaldeennes, maronites, et syriennes, OCP 26 (1960), 51–73 [several other important studies by Mateos]


English translation, A.J. Maclean, East Syrian Daily Offices (London, 1894, rp 1969). Cp J. Mateos, Lelya-Sapra (OCA 156, 1959); S. Pudicherry, Ramsa: Chaldean Vespers (Bangalore, 1972).


English translation, Bede Griffiths, Book of Common Prayer of the Syrian Church (Vagamon, 1965); adapted English translation, Francis Acharya, Prayer with the Harp of the Spirit (Vagamon, 1980).

Fenqitho: adapted English translation, Francis Acharya, The Crown of the Year (3 Vols, Vagamon, 1982–1986).


Cp M. Breydy, Kult, Dichtung, und Musik im Wochenbrevier der Syro-Maroniten (3 vols, Kobayath, 1971–9); J. Tabet, L'Office commun maronite (Kaslik, 1972).

Fenqitho: English translation, The Prayer of the Faithful according to the Maronite Liturgical Year (3 vols, Brooklyn, 1982–5).


M. Black, Rituale Melkitarum (Stuttgart, 1938)

———, A Christian Palestinian Horologion (Cambridge, 1954).



Synoptic tables of lections in E and W Syriac rites: L'Orient Syrien 3 (1958), 359–86; 12 (1967), 211–40, 371–88.

A. Baumstark, Nichtevangelische syrische Perikopenordningen der ersten Jahrtausends (Munster, 1921)

F.C. Burkitt, "The Early Syriac Lectionary System", Proceedings of the British Academy 1923, 301–38.


A.J. Maclean, East Syrian Daily Offices, Appendix

W.F. Macomber, The Chaldean Lectionary System of the Cathedral Church of Kokhe, OCP 33 (1967), 483–516

Mar Aprem, Nestorian Lectionary and Julian Calendar (Trichur, 1982)

P. Kannookadan, The East Syrian Lectionary: An Historico-Liturgical Study (Rome, 1991).

For Hudra according to specific seasons:

J. Moolan, The Period of Annunciation-Nativity in the East Syrian Calendar (Kottayam, 1985)

P.Kuruthukulangara, The Feast of the the Chaldean and Malabar Liturgical Year (Kottayam, 1989)

V. Pathikulangara, Resurrection, Life, and Renewal ..(Bangalore/Kottayam, 1982).

J.M. Fiey, "Sur le calendrier syriaque oriental arabe de Bar Bahlul", Analecta Bollandiana 106 (1988).


A. Baumstark, Festbrevier und Kirchenjahr der syr.Jakobiten (Paderborn, 1910; reprinted 1967). O. Heiming, "Ein jakobitisches Doppellektionar des Jahres 824", in Kyriakon: Festschrift J.Quasten II (Munster, 1970), 768–99.


  • F. Nau in Patrologia Orientalis 10
  • P. Peeters in Analecta Bollandiana 1908
  • S.P. Brock in Parole de l'Orient 1 (1970).


J-M. Sauget, Le calendrier maronite du ms Vat.syr.313, OCP 33 (1967), 221–93.


J-M. Sauget, Premières recherches sur l'origine..des synaxaires melkites (Brussels, 1969).

On Palestinian Syriac Lectionary: B.M. Metzger, Neotestamentica et Semitica: Studies in Honour of M. Black (Edinburgh, 1969), 209–20.



J-M. Sauget, Bibliographie des liturgies orientales (Rome, 1962) [arranged by rite and subject]

S. Janeras, Bibliografia sulle liturgie orientali 1961–1967 (Rome 1969) [arranged by author]

P. Yousif, A Classified Bibliography on the East Syrian Liturgy (Rome, 1990).

See also bibliographical surveys by H. Brakmann and others in Archiv fur Liturgiewissenschaft 7 (1961), 233–66; 11 (1969), 327–44; 19 (1978), 193–219; 24 (1982), 377–410; 30 (1988), 303–410. Also: A. Baumstark, Comparative Liturgy (English translation 1958), 216–24

C. Moss, Catalogue of Printed Books... in the British Museum (London, 1962), 630–84, and addenda 154–67

S.P. Brock, Syriac Studies: A lassified Bibliography (1960–1990) (Kaslik, 1996), 184–208.



H. Husmann, Die Melodien des chaldaischen Breviers-Commune (OCA 178, 1967)

———, Die Melodien der Jakobitischen Kirche I-II (Wien, 1969–70)

———, Die qale gaoanaie des Beit Gaza (Wien, 1971).

L. Hage, Le chant de l'église maronite (Kaslik, 1972)

———, Musique maronite (Kaslik, 1990–).

Dom Jeanin, "Melodies liturgiques syriennes et chaldeennes", I. Melodies syriennes: Introduction liturgique et recueil de melodies (repr. Aleppo, 1995)

N. Iskandar (ed. Gregorios Yuhannan Ibrahim), Beth Gazo: Music of the Syrian Orthodox Church (Damascus, 1996).



Anonymous (early 5th cent.)

S.P. Brock in OCP 46 (1980), 20–61 [Baptism], and JTS 37 (1986), 387–403 [Eucharist].

Theodore of Mopsuestia, Catech. Homilies

Ed. and English translation, A. Mingana [Woodbrooke Studies 193

French translation and photography ed., R. Tonneau (Rome, 1949)]

French translation, M. Debie and others (Paris 1996)

German translation, P. Bruns (Freiburg 1995). Cp H.M. Riley, Christian Initiation (Washington, DC, 1974).

Narsai [E, 5th cent.]

Ed. Mingana, Homs. 17 [later than Narsai], 21–22, 323

English translation, R.H. Connolly, The Liturgical Homilies of Narsai (London, 1909).

Gabriel of Qatar [E, 7th cent.]

English translation, G. Vavanikunnel (ed.), Homilies and Interpretations on the Holy Qurbana (Changanacherry, 1977), 85–104.

George of the Arabs [W, d.724]

Ed. and English translation, R.H. Connolly and H.W. Codrington, Two Commentaries on the Jacobite Liturgy (London, 1913).

Anonymous (Pseduo-George of Mosul) [E, 8th/9th cent.)

Ed. and Latin translation, R.H. Connolly, CSCO Scr.Syri 29, 32 (1913–5).

John of Dara [W, 9th cent.]

Ed. and French translation, J. Sader, CSCO Scr.Syri 132–3 (1970); cp J. Sader, Le lieu de culte et la messe syro-occidentale selon le De oblatione de Jean de Dara (OCA 223, 1983).

Moshe bar Kepha [W, d.903]

English translation, Connolly and Codrington, Two Commentaries.

English translation of Commentary on Baptismal Service, R.A. Aytoun, in J. Vellian (ed), Studies on Syrian Baptismal Rites (1973), 1–15.

Dionysius bar Salibi [W, d.1171]

Ed. and Latin translation, H. Labourt, CSCO Scr.Syri 13–14 (1903).

Iohannan bar Zo`bi [E, 12th/13th cent.]

English translation, T. Mannooramparampil (Kottayam, 1992).

Barhebraeus [W, d.1286]

Ed. and German Translation, R. Kohlhaas, Jakobitische Sakramententheologie im 13.Jh. (Munster, 1959).

Timothy II [E, d.1332]

Ed. and English translation, P.B. Kadicheeni, The Mystery of Baptism... (Bangalore, 1980).

*For editions of texts for liturgical use in the Syriac Churches see Baumstark, Comparative Liturgy, Appendix 216–24. Among texts published subsequently are:


Taksa d-quddasha da-shlihe (Milpitas, CA, 1995). [All three E Syriac anaphoras].

Ktaba da-Qdam wad-Batar wad-Hudra wad-Kaskul wad-Gazza w-Qale d-`Udrana `am ktaba d-Mazmure (3 vols, ed. Darmo; Trichur, 1960–62).

Ktaba da-Qdam wad-Batar (Baghdad, 1983).

Ktaba d-Mazmure d-Dawid w-`ameh ktaba d-metida` da-Qdam wad-Batar d-'itaw(hy) taksa d-tesmesta `i(d)tanayta d-yawmata shime wda-star (Baghdad, 1972).

Taksa da-Mkurya wad-Burraka wad-Kullala wda-Qtar Gnona (Trichur, 1960). [Marriage].

Ktaba d-kurasta d-`anide ..(Baghdad, 1985). [Burial].

Book of the Service of Qurbana of the Dead..with Blessing of the Houses (Trichur, 1984) [Syriac text only; reprinted from 1937 edition].

Ktaba d-takse kumraye (Rome, 1957). [Chaldean ordinations].


Ktobo d-tekso d-Anafura (ed. A. Konat; Pampakuda, 1986). [13 Anaphoras, Syriac-Malayalam].

Anafura: The Divine Liturgy according to the Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (ed. J.Y. Cicek; St Ephrem Monastery, Holland, 1985). [9 Anaphoras].

Anaphoras (ed. A.Y. Samuel; Lodi, NJ, 1991). [13 Anaphoras; cp Sobornost/ECR 15:1 (1973), 71–3].

Tekso da-`modo qadiso (ed. Ephrem Barsaum; Homs, 1950). [Baptism].

The Sacrament of Holy Baptism according to the Ancient Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (ed. A.Y. Samuel; Hackensack, 1974). [Syriac-English].

Tekso da-`modo, d-Zuwogo, `Ufoyo..(Pampakuda, 1979). [Baptism, marriage, Burial].

The Order of the Solemnization of the Sacrament of Matrimony according to the Ancient Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (ed. A.Y. Samuel; Hackensack, 1975). [Syriac-English].

The Order for the Burial of the Dead according to the Ancient Rite of the Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (ed. A.Y. Samuel; Hackensack, 1974). [Syriac-English].

Tekso d-`ufoyo d-tegme kohnoye (Pampakuda, 1982). [Burial of priests].

Tekso da-sluto shimto (Pampakuda, 1977). [Weekday Office].

Shimo (St Ephrem Monastery, Holland, 1982). [Weekday Office].

Ktobo d-Bet Gazo (St Ephrem Monastery, 1981). [Repertory of hymns and melodies arranged according to the 8 tones].

Ktobo d-Bet Gazo da-zmiroto `idtonyoto (Pampakuda, 1986).

Bet Gazo rabo/Die gesamte Melodien der Syrisch-Orthodoxen Kirche von Antiochien (St Ephrem Monastery, 1992).

Fenqitho (3 vols, Pampakuda, 1962–3).

Tekso da-M`ad`dono (ed.Ignatius Ya`qub; Damascus, 1978). [Syriac and Arabic].

Tekso da-M`ad`dono d-Hudro sa(n)tonoyo (Pampakuda, 1979). [Syriac-Malayalam].

Tekso da-M`ad`dono/Ma'de'dono: The Book of the Church Festivals...(Lodi, 1984). [Syriac-English].

Sbito d-dayroye (St Ephrem Monastery, 1993). [Prayers for Weekday Monastic Hours; with Psalms].

Ewangelyon qadisho [Gospel Lectionary], ed. J.Y. Cicek (St Ephrem Monastery, 1987).

Puros qeryone d-'egroto/Lectionary of the Syriac Epistles (St Ephrem Monastery, 1992).

Qinotho d-qurobo alohoyo/Kirchliche Hymnen der Syrisch-Orthodoxen Kirche von Antiochien (St Ephrem Monastery, 1993).


Ktobe d-tekse l-tesmesto d-roze qadise (Bkerke, 1942).

Ktobo d-Qurbono 'a(y)k `yodo d-`idto d-Antyukya d-Suryoye Maronoye (Bkerke, 1992).

Shimto (Kaslik 1982; 2nd ed.1991). [Weekday Office, Syriac-Arabic].