Aramaic Studies


W.F. Albright, “The Emergence of the Arameans,” CAH rev. ed. 2 (1966), 46–53.

———, CAH 2.2 (1975), 529–536, 991.

C-J. Axskjold, Aram as the Enemy Friend: The Ideological Role of Aram in the Composition of Genesis–2 Kings (Stockholm, 1998).

J. Bowman, “Arameans, Aramaic, and the Bible”, JNES 7 (1948), 65–90.

———, IDB s.v. “Arameans”.

J.A. Brinktrine, “Notes on Arameans and Chaldeans in S. Babylonia in the Early 7th Century BC”, Orientalia 46 (1977), 304–325.

P.M. Michele Davian, J.W. Wevers, and M. Weigl (eds), The World of the Aramaeans: Biblical, Historical and Cultural Studies in Honour of P-E. Dion (Sheffield, 2000).

M. Dietrich, Die Aramaer Sudbabyloniens in der Sargonidenzeit 700–648 (Neukirchen-Vluyn, 1970).

P. Dion, Les araméens a l’âge du fer (Paris, 1997).

A. Dupont-Sommer, Les Araméens (Paris, 1949).

G. Garbini, “Il problema dell’arte aramaica”, RSO 34 (1959).

J.C. Greenfield, “Aspects of Aramean Religion”, in P.D. Miller and others (eds), Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays in Honor of F.M. Cross (Philadelphia, 1987), 67–78.

J. Hoftijzer, Religio Aramaica (Leiden, 1968).

E. Lipinski, “Mon père était un araméen errant”, OLP 20 (1989), 23–47.

**A. Malamat, “The Arameans”, in D.J. Wiseman (ed), Peoples of Old Testament Times (Oxford, 1973), ch. 6.

———, in Encyclopaedia Judaica 3 (1971) 252–256.

A.R. Millard, “Assyrians and Arameans”, Iraq 45 (1983) 101–108.

S. Moscati, “The Aramean Ahlamu”, JSS 4 (1959) 303–307.

———, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (London, 1957), ch. 7.

R.T. O’Callaghan, Aram Naharaim (Rome, 1948).

**W.T. Pitard, “Aramaeans”, in A.J. Hoerth and others (eds), Peoples of the Old Testament World (Grand Rapids, 1994), 207–230.

P. Sacchi, “Per una storia di Aram”, Parola del Passato 14 (1959), 124–134.

S. Schiffer, Die Aramaer (Leipzig, 1911).

G.M. Schwartz, “The Origin of the Aramaeans in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia: Research Problems and Potential Strategies”, in O.M.C. Haex and others (eds), To the Euphrates and Beyond (Rotterdam, 1989), 275–291.

R. Zadok, On West Semites in Babylonia during the Chaldean and Achaemenian Periods: An Onomastic Study (Jerusalem, 1977).

———, “Some Problems in Early Aramaean History”, ZDMG Suppl. 6 (1975) 81–85.

Aramaean States (including relations with Israel)

J.A. Brinktrine, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia 1158–722 (Rome, 1968).

G. Bucellati, Cities and Nations of Ancient Syria (Rome, 1967).

P.E. Dion [see under Arameans].

J.C. Greenfield, “Babylonian-Aramaic Relationship”, in H.J. Nissen and J. Renger (eds), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarne (Berlin, 1982) 1.2, 471–482.

**J.F. Healey, “Ancient Aramean Culture and the Bible”, ARAM 1 (1989) 31–37.

E.G.H. Kraeling, Aram and Israel (New York, 1918).

J.R. Kupper, “Northern Mesopotamia and Syria”, CAH rev. ed. 2.1 (1973), 1–41.

E. Lipinski, “Aram et Israël du Xe au VIIIe siècle avant notre ére”, Acta Antiqua Acad.Scient.Hungaricae 27 (1979) 49–101.

———, “Aramaer und Israel”, TRE 3 (1978) 590–599.

**B. Mazar, “The Aramean Empire and its Relation with Israel”, BA 25 (1962) 98–120 = BAR 2.

W.T. Pitard, Ancient Damascus (to 732) (Winona Lake, 1987).

H. Sader, Les états araméens de Syrie depuis leur fondation jusqu’à leur transformation en provinces assyriennes (Wiesbaden, 1987).

H. Tadmor, “Aramaization of Assyria”, in H.J. Nissen and J. Renger (eds), Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarne (Berlin, 1982), 1.2, 449–470.

M.F. Unger, Israel and the Arameans of Damascus (London, 1957).

Place of Aramaic within the Northwest Semitic Languages

G. Bergstrasser (trans. P.T. Daniels), Introduction to the Semitic Languages (Winona Lake, 1983).

C. Brockelmann, Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der semitischen Sprachen (Berlin, 1908), 1.13–21.

G. Garbini, “Il semitico di nord-ovest (Naples 1960)”, review by Kutscher JSS 10 (1965), 21–51.

———, “Semitico nord-occidentale e aramaico”, Linguistica Semitica, Presente, e Futuro (Rome, 1961), 59–90.

J. Healey, “Phoenician and the Spread of Aramaic”, Atti l congresso di Studi Fenici II, 663–666.

W. Randall Garr, Dialect Geography of Syria Palestine 1000–586 BCE (Philadelphia, 1985).

**H.L. Ginzberg, “The North West Semitic Languages”, The World History of the Jewish People: 1.2 The Patriarchs (Tel Aviv, 1970), 102–124, 270.

M. Goshen-Gottstein (ed), Comparative Semitic Linguistics (Jerusalem, 1974)

J.C. Greenfield, “Some Reflections on the Vocabulary of Aramaic in Relationship to Other Semitic Languages”, in P. Fronzaroli, Atti del 2o congresso internazionale di linguistica camito-semitica (Florence, 1978), 151–156.

R. Hetzron, “La division des langues sémitiques”, in A. Caquot and D. Cohen (eds), Actes ler congrés internationale de linquistique semitique et chamito-sémitique (The Hague, 1974), 182–194.

**J. Huehnegard, s.v. “Language”, ABD 4.

E. Lipinski, Outline of a Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (Leuven, 1997). [Aramaic = pp. 61–70].

**S. Moscati and others, An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (Wiesbaden, 1974). [Review by Kutscher HAS, 174–183.]

H. Polotsky, “Semitics”, in E.A. Speiser (ed), At the Dawn of Civilization (London, 1964), 99–111, 357–358.

H. Rabin, “The Origin of the Subdivisions of Semitic”, Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G.R. Driver (Oxford, 1963), 104–115.

M. Sekine, “The Subdivision of the Northwest Semitic Languages”, JSS 18 (1973), 205–221.

R.M. Voigt, “The Classification of Central Semitic”, JSS 32 (1987), 1–21.

Aramaic Dialects (General Surveys)

K. Beyer (trans. J. Healey), The Aramaic Language: Its Distribution and Subdivisions (Gottingen, 1986). [English translation of introductory chapter of Beyer (1984), see Qumran Aramaic below]

**S.P. Brock, “Three Thousand Years of Aramaic Literature”, ARAM 1 (1989), 11–23.

**E.M. Cook, “Aramaic Language and Literature”, in E.M. Meyers (ed), The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Archaeology in the Near East (Oxford, 1997), 178–184.

**J. Fitzmyer, A Wandering Aramean [= WA] (Scholars Press, 1979).

———, “The Aramaic Language and the Study of the New Testament”, JBL 99 (1980), 5–21.

**J. Greenfield, IDBS s.v. “Aramaic”.

**———, “Aramaic and its Dialects”, H.H. Paper (ed.), Jewish Languages (New York, 1978), 29–43.

———, “Aramaic Studies and the Bible”, SVT 32 (1981).

**———, “Aramaic and the Jews”, M.J. Geller, J.C. Greenfield, M.P. Weitzman (eds), Studia Aramaica (JSS Suppl. 4; 1995), 1–18.

A. Jeffrey, IDB s.v. “Aramaic”.

**S. Kaufman, “Languages (Aramaic)”, in ABD IV, 173–178.

**———, “Aramaic”, in R. Hetzron (ed), The Semitic Languages (London, 1997), 114–130.

*E.Y. Kutscher, Encyclopaedia Judaica s.v. “Aramaic”.

*———, Hebrew and Aramaic Studies [= HAS] (Jerusalem, 1977), 90–155.

*F. Rosenthal, Die aramaistische Forschung seit Th. Noldekes Veroffentlichungen [= AF] (Leiden, 1939; reprinted, 1964). [Reviewed by Ginsberg JAOS 62 (1942), 229–238.]

———, (ed.), An Aramaic Handbook (2 vols; Wiesbaden, 1967). [Includes selections from the main dialects, with glossaries]

———, “Aramaic”, Encyclopedia Iranica 2 (1987), 252–256.

K. Tsereteli, Grammatica generale dell’aramaico (Torino, 1995). [Vol. 1, Antico aramaico; Vol. 2, Neoaramaico].


H.J.W. Drijvers, in J.H. Hospers (ed.), A Basic Bibliography for the Study of the Semitic Languages (Leiden, 1973), 283–335.

J.A. Fitzmyer, S.A. Kaufman, An Aramaic Bibliography, Part I: Old, Official, and Biblical Aramaic (Baltimore, 1991). [the standard bibliography]

F. Vattioni, “Saggio di bibliografia semitica”, AION 28– (1978–). [normally appears annually in vol 28 onwards]

Old Aramaic and Official Aramaic

Collections of Inscriptions

Standard Collections

  • M. Lidzbarski, Handbuch der nordsemitischen Epigraphik (Weimar, 1898; reprinted 1962).
  • G.A. Cooke, A Textbook of Northsemitic Inscriptions (Oxford, 1905).
  • J.J. Koopmans, Aramäische Chrestomathie (2 vols; Leiden, 1962).
  • H. Donner and W. Rollig, Kanaanaische und aramäische Inschriften (3 vols; Wiesbaden, 1962–4; 2nd ed., 1966–1969).
  • J.C. Gibson, Syrian Semitic Inscriptions, vol. 2: Aramaic (Oxford, 1975).

Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum

NB: The second part of the CIS is devoted to Aramaic inscriptions; so far the following volumes have appeared:

  • Vol. 1 (1889): nos. 1–156 Aramaic; 157–1471 Nabataean. Plates 1889.
  • Vol. 2.1 (1907): nos. 1472–3233 Nabataean. Plates 1906.
  • 2.2 (in preparation): Nabataean.
  • 3 (1926–41): nos 3901–4624 Palmyrene. Plates 1951 (3901–4237); 1954 (4238–4624).
  • 4 (in preparation): Palmyrene.
  • 5 (in preparation): Papyri and ostraca.

Periodicals devoted to Semitic epigraphy:

  • Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (ed. M. Lidzbarski; 1900–1915)
  • Repertoire d’epigraphie semitique (Paris, 1900–).
  • Neue Ephemeris fur semit: Epigraphik (Wiesbaden, 1972–).
  • Studi epigrafici

New publications on inscriptions are periodically reported by J.Teixidor in the Bulletin d’epigraphie sémitique (Syria, 1967–), and collected together as Bulletin d’epigraphie sémitique 1964–1980 (Paris, 1986).

Dictionaries, etc.

C.F. Jean and J. Hoftijzer, Dictionnaire des inscriptions sémitiques de l’Ouest (2nd ed.; 2 vols; Leiden, 1995) [The standard work].

I.N. Vinnikov, “Dictionary of Aramaic Inscriptions”, Palestinskij Sbornik 3 (1958), 4 (1959), 7 (1962), 9 (1962), 13 (1965). [In Russian; includes proper names; English presentation of the work by S. Segert in ArOr 35 (1967) 463–466].

R.A. Brauer, Comparative Lexicon of Old Aramaic (Diss. Dropsie Univ., 1974).

W.E. Aufrecht and J.C. Hurd, A Synoptic Concordance of Aramaic Inscriptions (Missoula, 1975). [Based on Donner-Rollig, KAI nos. 201–279].

J.C. Greenfield, “Notes on the Early Aramaic Lexicon”, OrSuec 33/35 (1984/6), 149–155.


R. Degen, Altaramäische Grammatik der Inschriften des 10–8 Jh v.Chr (Wiesbaden, 1969).

M. Folmer, The Aramaic Language in the Achaemenid Period (OLA 68; 1995).

V. Hug, Altaramäische Grammatik der Texte des 7. und 6. Jh. v.Chr (1993).

P. Leander, Laut und Formenlehre des Aegyptisch-Aramäischen (Goteborg, 1928; reprinted 1966).

T. Muraoka and B. Porten, A Grammar of Egyptian Aramaic (Leiden, 1998).

W. Randall Garr, Dialect Geography of Syria Palestine 1000–586 BCE (Philadelphia, 1985).

J. Ribera Florit, Gramatica del arameo classico (oficial) (Barcelona, 1993).

S. Segert, Altaramäische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1975). [Includes Official Aramaic; Review by Degen in Gotting. Gel. Anzeigen 231 (1979), 219–239; Review by Hoftijzer in JSJ 8 (1977), 99–105; Review by Kaufman in BO 34 (1977), 92–97.


F.M. Cross, “The Origin and Early Evolution of the Alphabet”, Eretz Israel 8 (1967), 8*–24*.

J.A. Delaunay, “L’araméen d’empire et les débuts de l’écriture en Asie central”, Acta Iranica 1 (1974), 219–236.

G.R. Driver (ed. S.A. Hopkins), Semitic Writing (London, 1976).

L.G. Herr, The Scripts of Ancient Northwest Semitic Seals (Missoula, 1978).

S.J. Liebermann, “The Aramaic Argillary Script in the Seventh Century”, BASOR 192 (1968), 25–31. [Nineveh tablets]

J. Naveh, The Development of the Aramaic Script (Jerusalem, 1970).

**———, Early History of the Alphabet (Leiden-Jerusalem, 1982).

———, “Proto-Canaanite, Archaic Greek, and the Script of the Aramaic Text in the Tell Fakhariyeh Statue”, Ancient Israelite Religion: Essays...F.M. Cross (Philadelphia, 1987), 101–114.

E. Puech, “Origine de l’alphabet”, Revue Biblique 93 (1986), 161–213.

B. Sass, “The Genesis of the Alphabet and its Development in the Second Millennium BC”, Ägypten und Altes Testament 13 (1988).

S. Segert, “Altaramäische Schrift und die Anfange des griechischen Alphabet”, Klio 41 (1963), 38–57.

P. Swiggers, “The Notation System of the Old Aramaic Inscriptions”, ArOr 51 (1983), 378–381.


A.M.R. Aristar, “The Semitic Jussive and the Implications for Aramaic”, Maarav 4 (1987), 157–189.

P.E. Dion, La langue de Ya‘udi (Waterloo, Ontario, 1974).

———, “The Language Spoken in Ancient Sam‘al”, JNES 37 (1978), 115–118.

**J.A. Fitzmyer, A Wandering Aramean, ch. 11–12.

D.N. Freedman, A.D. Forbes, F.I. Anderson, Studies in Hebrew and Aramaic Orthography (Winona Lake, 1991).

G. Garbini, “Aramaica”, Studi Semitici ns 10 (Rome, 1993).

J.C. Greenfield, “The Dialects of Early Aramaic”, JNES 37 (1978), 93–99.

———, “Iranian Loanwords in Early Aramaic”, Encyclopedia Iranica 2 (1987), 256–259.

W. Hinz, Iranische Sprachgut der Nebenuberlieferungen (Wiesbaden, 1975).

S.A. Kaufman, The Akkadian Influences on Aramaic (Chicago, 1974). [Review by von Soden in JSS 22 (1977), 81–86.]

E. Lipinski, Studies in Aramaic Inscriptions and Onomastics 1 (Leuven, 1975); 2 (Leuven 1994). [Review by Degen, WO 9 (1977), 167–172.]

R. Macuch, “Some Orthographico-Phonetic Problems of Ancient Aramaic and the Living Aramaic Pronunciation”, Maarav 5/6 (1990), 221–237.

S. Segert, “The Vowel Letters in Early Aramaic”, JNES 37 (1978), 111–114.

J.D. Whitehead, “Some Distinctive Features of the Language of the Aramaic Arsames Correspondence”, JNES 37 (1978), 119–140.


W. Cornfeld, Onomastica aramaica aus Ägypten (Wien, 1982).

———, “Onomastica aramaica und das Altes Testament”, ZAW 88 (1976), 105–112.

F.M. Fales, “On Aramaic Onomastics in the Neo-Assyrian Period”, Oriens Antiquus 16 (1977), 41–68.

E. Lipinski [see above: Old Aramaic, Studies].

M. Liverani, “Antecedenti dell’onomastica aramaica antica”, RSO 37 (1962) 65–76.

M. Maraqten, Die semitische Personennamen in den alt- und reichsaramäischen Inschriften aus Vorderasien (Hildesheim, 1988).

M.H. Silverman, “Religious Values in the Jewish Proper Names at Elephantine”, AOAT 217 (1985).

R. Zadok, “On the Onomasticon of Old Aramaic Sources”, BO 48 (1991), 25–40.

———, [see Arameans].


F. Vattioni, “Preliminari alle iscrizioni aramaiche”, Augustinianum 9 (1969), 305–361. [classified bibliography of 1253 items]

J.A. Fitzmyer and S.A. Kaufman [see above: Aramaic Dialects, Bibliographies].

Some Important Individual Texts or Archives

Old Aramaic

**S.C. Layton and D. Pardee, “Old Aramaic inscriptions”, BA 51 (1988), 172–189.

J. Naveh, “Old Aramaic [c.900–200 BC] Inscriptions (1960–1965)”, AION 16 (1966), 19–36.

Tel Fekheriye [ArBib pp.36–37]

A.A. Assaf, P. Bordreuil, A. Millard, La statue de Tell Fekheriye et son inscription (Paris, 1982).

  • Maarav 1982. [Kaufman]
  • Abr Nahrain 1983/4. [Muraoka]
  • Iraq 1983. [Greenfield]
  • BASOR 259 1985. [Gropp and Lewis]
  • RB 1985. [Greenfield and Schaffer]
  • ZAW 1985. [Sasson]
  • AION 1986. [Vattioni]
  • Old Testament and Semitic Studies for F.C. Fensham 1988. [Andersen and Freedman]
  • Studies in Honor of J.C. Greenfield 1995.[Cross: on palaeography and date]
  • Aufrecht and Hamilton, Newsletter for Targum and Cognate Studies, Supplement 4 (1988).
Zincirli [ArBib pp.14–17, 20]

J. Tropper, Die Inschriften von Zincirli (Munster, 1993).

  • V.J.J. de Caen, Newsletter for Targumic and Cognate Studies, Supplement 6 (1991).
Tel Dan

A. Biran and J. Naveh, “An Aramaic Stele Fragment from Tel Dan”, IEJ 43 (1993), 81–98; and IEJ 45 (1995), 1–18.

E. Lemaire, Etudes sémitiques et samaritaines... J. Margain (ed. Amphoux; Lausanne, 1998).

Sefire [ArBib pp.17–19]

J.A. Fitzmyer, The Aramaic Inscriptions of Sefire (Rome, 1967; 2nd ed., 1995).

A. Lemaire and J-M. Durand, Les inscriptions araméennes de Sfire et l’Assyrie de Shamshi-ilu (Geneva/Paris, 1984). [Review by von Soden, Studi epigrafici 2 (1985), 133–141.]

R. Zadok, “On the Historical Background of the Sefire Treaty”, AION 44 (1984), 529–538.

Deir ‘Alla [ArBib pp.23–24]

J. Hoftijzer and G.van der Kooij, Aramaic Texts from Deir Alla (Leiden, 1976).

  • Fitzmyer, CBQ 40 (1978), 93–95.
  • Puech, RB 85 (1978), 114–117.
  • Naveh, IEJ 29 (1979), 133–136.
  • Greenfield, JSS 25 (1980), 248–252.
  • Segert, ZKM 72 (1980), 182–189.
  • Dahood, Biblica 62 (1981), 124–127.
  • J-A. Hackett, The Balaam Text from Deir Alla (Chico, 1984).
  • J. Hoftijzer and G. van der Kooij (eds), The Balaam Text from Deir ‘Alla Re-evaluated (Ledien, 1991).
  • Hoftijzer, BA 39 (1976).
  • Caquot and Lemaire, Syria (1977).
  • Garbini, Henoch (1979).
  • Delcor, VTS 32 (1980).
  • Kaufman, BASOR 239 (1980).
  • Hackett, Orientalia (1984).
  • Rendsburg BO (1993).
  • Aufrecht, Newsletter for Targum and Cognate Studies, Supplement 2 (1985).
Barhadad [ArBib p.11]

Lemaire, Orientalia 53 (1984) 337–349

Bordreuil and Teixidor, Aula Orientalis 1 (1983)

Dearman and Miller, PEQ 115 (1983)

Puech, RB (1992).


F.M. Fales, Aramaic Epigraphs on Clay Tablets of the Neo-Assyrian Period (Rome, 1986). [Review by Kaufman, JAOS 109 (1989), 97–102 (with indexes)].

B. Aggoula, Inscriptions et graffites araméens d’Assour (Naples, 1985).

Official Aramaic

[For Grammars, see above: Old Aramaic, Grammars]

U. Weber and J. Wieshofer, Das Reich der Achaimeniden: Eine Bibliographie (Berlin, 1996) [Aramäische Quellen, 129–146].

**J. Naveh, “Hebrew and Aramaic in the Persian Period”, in W.D. Davies and L. Finkelstein (eds), Cambridge History of Judaism 1 (1984), 115–129.

J.M. Lindenberger, Ancient Aramaic and Hebrew Letters (1994).

Adon Letter [ArBib p.54]; KAI 266

J. Fitzmyer, Biblica 46 (1965), 231–242.

B. Porten, Biblical Archaeologist 44 (1981), 36–52.

  • A.E. Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century BC (Oxford, 1923).
  • E.G. Kraeling, The Brooklyn Museum Aramaic Papyri (New Haven, 1953).
  • B. Porten and A. Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt: 1 Letters; 2 Contracts; 3 Literature, Accounts, List (Winona Lake, 1986; 1989; 1993). [Improved edition of all the texts, with English translation.]
  • Darius’ inscription: J.C. Greenfield and B. Porten, The Bisitun Inscription of Darius the Great: Aramaic Version (London, 1982). [Review by Wesselius, BO 41 (1984), 440–445].
  • Ahiqar: J.M. Lindenberger, The Sayings of Ahikar (Baltimore, 1983).
  • I. Kottsieper, “Die Sprache der Ahiqarspruche”, BZAW 194 (1990).
  • J.C. Greenfield, “Ahiqar in the book of Tobit”, Melanges H. Cazelles (Paris, 1982), 329–336.
  • ———, “The Wisdom of Ahiqar”.
  • J. Day and others (eds), Wisdom in Ancient Israel (Cambridge, 1995), 43–52.
  • Grotanelli, “Aesop in Babylonien”.
  • H.J. Nissen and J. Renger, Mesopotamien und seine Nachbarne (Berlin, 1982) 1.2, 555–572.
  • Ostraca: Fitzmyer, WA 199–200. [Includes a list of published ostraca letters]
  • On the background: **B. Porten, Archives from Elephantine: The Life of an Ancient Jewish Military Colony (Berkeley, 1968).
  • R. Yaron, The Law of the Aramaic Papyri (Oxford, 1961).
  • Y. Muffs, Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine (Leiden, 1969).
  • M.H. Silvermann, “Religious Values in the Jewish Proper Names at Elephantine”, AOAT 217 (1985).
Arsham Archive

G.R. Driver, Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century BC (Oxford, 1954; abridged and revised edition 1957).

B. Porten and A. Yardeni [see under Elephantine].

Hermopolis Letters

E. Bresciani and M. Kamil, “Le lettere aramaiche di Hermopolis”, Mem.Acc.Naz.Lincei 8.12.5 (1966), 359–428.

B. Porten and A. Yardeni, [see under Elephantine].

On this archive, see Porten and Greenfield, ZAW 80 (1968), 216–231; and Milik, Biblica 48 (1967), 546–622.


J.B. Segal, Aramaic Texts from Saqqara (Oxford, 1985). [Reviews by Teixidor, JAOS (1985), 231–235; Zadok, WO (1985), 173–176; Shaked, Orientalia (1987), 407–413; Williamson, JEA 73 (1987), 265–269].

On Aramaic texts from Egypt in General

P. Grelot, Documents araméens d’Egypte (Paris, 1972) [with corrections by author in RB 82 (1975), 288–292; Review by Greenfield, JAOS 96 (1976), 131–135.]

R. Contini, “I documenti aramaici dell’Egitto persiano e tolemaic”, Rivista Biblica 34 (1986), 73–109.

For coins from Egypt with Aramaic inscriptions see Lipinski, Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 12 (1982), 23–34.

Other texts from Egypt: N. Aime-Giron, Textes araméens d’Egypte (Cairo, 1931).

Persepolis [ArBib pp.165–166]

R.A. Bowman, Aramaic Ritual Objects from Persepolis (Chicago, 1970). [Review by Degen in BO 31 (1974), 124–127; Levine in JAOS 92 (1972), 70–79; Naveh and Shaked, Orientalia 42 (1973), 445–457.

Arad [ArBib p.29], Idumaea

Y. Aharoni, Arad Inscriptions (Jerusalem, 1981; Hebrew ed., 1975). [Review by Lemaire, Orientalia 52 (1983), 444–447.]

A. Lemaire, Nouvelles inscriptions araméennes d’Idumée au Musée d’Israël (Transeuphratène Supplement 3; 1996).

I. Eph‘al and J. Naveh, Aramaic Ostraca of the 4th century BCE from Idumaea (1996).

Teima [ArBib pp.149–158]

Degen, NESE 2 (1974); Beyer and Livingstone, ZDMG 137 (1987), 285–96; Cross, CBQ 48 (1986), 387–394.

Samaria Papyri [ArBib p.30]

F.M. Cross, “The Samaria Papyri”, BA 26 (1963), 110–121; and in Vetus Testamentum Supplement 40 (1988).

D.M. Gropp, “The Language of the Samaria Papyri”, Maarav 5/6 (1990) 169–187.

Inscriptions from Asia Minor

R.S. Hanson, “Aramaic Funerary and Boundary Inscriptions from Asia Minor”, BASOR 192 (1968), 3–11.

Sardis bilingual: KAI 260. [ArBib p.163]

Xanthos trilingual [ArBib p.164]: Lemaire, Studies in Honor of J.C.Greenfield (1995), 423–432.

P.Amherst 63 (Aramaic in Demotic script)

S.P. Vleeming and J.W. Wesselius, Studies in Papyrus Amherst 63 (Amsterdam, 1985).

R.C. Steiner and C.F. Nims, JAOS 103 (1983), 261–274; JNES 43 (1984), 89–114; RB 92 (1985), 60–81.

Seal Inscriptions, etc.

List of 178 seals in F. Vattioni, “I sigilli, le monete, e gli avori aramaici”, Augustinianum 11 (1971), 47–87.

P. Bordreuil, Catalogue des sceaux ouest-semitiques inscrits (Paris, 1986).

Lemaire, Syria (1982); Naveh and Shaked, JRAS (1986).

Middle Aramaic

D. Boyarin, “An Enquiry into the Formation of the Middle Aramaic Dialects”, in Y.L. Arbeitman and A.R. Bornhard (eds), Memory of J.A. Kerns (Amsterdam, 1981) 2.613–649.

J. Greenfield, “Standard Literary Aramaic”, Actes le congrès internationale de linquistique sémitique et chamito-sémitique 1969 (The Hague, 1974), 280–289.

S. Shaked, “Iranian Loanwords in Middle Aramaic”, Encyclopedia Iranica 2 (1987), 259–261.

A. Vivian, “I dialetti giudaici dell’aramaico medio e tardo”, Oriens Antiquus 15 (1976), 56–60.

Biblical Aramaic


Brown-Driver-Briggs; Kohler-Baumgartner, Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the OT, Vol 5 (3rd ed.; 2000); Vogt, Lexicon Linguae Aramaicae Veteris Testamenti (Rome, 1971) [Review by Degen, Biblica 44 (1975), 116–125].


H. Bauer and P.Leander, Grammatik des Biblish-Aramäischen (Halle, 1927).

F.E. Greenspahn, An Introduction to Aramaic (Atlanta, 1998).

E. Qimron, Aramit miqra’it (Jerusalem, 1993).

F. Rosenthal, A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic (Wiesbaden, 1961, 1964) [Index JSS 24 (1979), 21–24].

S. Segert [see under Old And Official Aramaic].


Surveys in Rosenthal, AF 60–71, and in Kutscher, HAS 142–146.

W. Baumgartner, “Das Aramäische im Buch Daniel”, ZAW 45 (1927), 142–146.

P.W. Coxon, “The Problem of Consonantal Mutations in Biblical Aramaic”, ZDMG 129 (1979), 8–22. R. Degen, Aramäisch I: im Altes TestamentTRE 3 (1978), 599–602.

S.E. Fassberg, “The Origin of the Ktib/Qre in the Aramaic Portions of Ezra and Daniel”, Vetus Testamentum 39 (1989), 1–12.

W. Randall Garr, “On the Alternation between Construct and ‘Di’ Phrases in Biblical Aramaic”, JSS 35 (1990), 213–231.

H.L. Ginsberg, Studies in Daniel (New York, 1948). [Review by Rosenthal, JAOS 69 (1949), 173–174.]

A. Hurvitz, “The Chronological Significance of Aramaisms in Biblical Hebrew”, IEJ 18 (1968), 234–240.

**I. Jerushalmi, The Aramaic Sections of Ezra and Daniel (Cincinnati, 1978).

E.F. Kautsch, Die Aramaismen im Altes Testament (Halle, 1902). [Review by T. Noldeke, ZDMG 57 (1903), 412–420.]

K. Kitchen, “The Aramaic of Daniel”, in D.J. Wiseman and others (eds), Notes on Some Problems in the Book of Daniel (London, 1965). [Review by Rowley, JSS 11 (1966), 112–126.]

S. Morag, “Biblical Aramaic in Geonic Babylonia”, Studies...H.J. Polotsky (Jerusalem, 1964), 117–131.

T. Muraoka, “Notes on the Syntax of Biblical Aramaic”, JSS 11 (1965), 151–167.

H.B. Rosen, “On the Use of Tenses in the Aramaic of Daniel”, JSS 6 (1961), 183–203.

H.H. Rowley, The Aramaic of the Old Testament (Oxford, 1929).

Z. Stefanovic, “The Aramaic of Daniel in the Light of Old Aramaic”, JSOT Supplement 129 (1992).

A. van der Woude (ed), The Book of Daniel in the Light of New Findings (Leuven, 1993).

A. Vivian, Studi di sintassi contrastivo: Dialetti aramaici (Florence, 1981). [Daniel Aramaic, MT, Syriac].

M. Wagner, “Die lexikalischen und gramatikalischen Aramaismen im alttestamentichen Hebraisch”, BZAW 96 (1966). [Review by Degen, Oriens 21/2 (1968/9), 386–391; by Beyer, ZDMG 120 (1970), 195–198.


Ezra: H.G.M. Williamson (1985).

Daniel: J. Collins (1993); J.E. Goldingay (1989); L.F. Hartman, A. di Lella (1978); J. Margain (1994).

Aramaic Texts Of The Hellenistic Period

Asoka’s Edict [ArBib p.166–169]

F.R. Allchin and K.R. Norman, “Guide to the Asokan Inscriptions”, South Asian Studies 1 (1985), 43–50.

B.N. Mukherjee, Studies in the Aramaic Edicts of Asoka (Calcutta, 1984).

G. Pugliese Carratelli and G. Garbini, A Bilingual Greek Aramaic Edict by Asoka (Rome, 1964).

Qumran Aramaic

B.Z. Wacholder, “The Ancient Judaeo-Aramaic Literature (500–164 BCE): A Classification of Pre-Qumranic Texts”, in L.H. Schiffmann (ed.), Archaeology and History in the Dead sea Scrolls (Sheffield, 1990), 257–281. [dates Qumran Aramaic literature to 3/2nd cent. BC]

Collection of texts [list of Aramaic fragments in Fitzmyer, WA 101–102)]

K. Beyer, Die aramäischen Texte vom Toten Meer samt den Inschriften aus Palestina (Berlin, 1984); Ergänzungsband (1994). [Review by S.F. Bennett, Maarav 4 (1987), 243–260.]

J.A. Fitzmyer and D.J. Harrington, A Manual of Palestinian Aramaic Texts (Rome, 1978).

B. Jongeling and others, Aramaic Texts from Qumran (Leiden, 1976).

Main editions of individual texts

J. Fitzmyer, The Genesis Apocryphon of Qumran Cave 1 (2nd ed.; Rome, 1971).

J. Milik, The Books of Enoch [from Cave 4] (Oxford, 1976). [For revised Aramaic-Greek index: JJS 41 (1990), 13–48.]

M. Sokoloff, The Targum to Job from Qumran Cave XI (Ramat Gen, 1974).

J. van der Ploeg and others, Le Targum de Job [from Qumran Cave 11] (Leiden, 1971).

Studies on Qumran Aramaic

E.M. Cook, in P.W. Flint and J.C. Vanderkam (eds), The Dead Sea Scrolls after 50 years (Leiden, 1998), 359–378.

J.A. Fitzmyer, “A Sketch of Qumran Aramaic”, in The Genesis Apocryphon.

E.Y. Kutscher, “The Language of the Genesis Apocryphon”, HAS 3–34.

T. Muraoka, “Notes on the Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon”, RQ 8 (1972/3), 7–51.

———, “The Aramaic of the Old Targum of Job from Qumran Cave XI”, JJS 25 (1974), 425–443.

———, (ed), “Studies in Qumran Aramaic”, Abr Nahrain Supplement 3 (1992).

H.H. Rowley, “Notes on the Aramaic of the Genesis Apocryphon”, Hebrew and Semitic Studies Presented to G.R. Driver (Oxford, 1963), 190–206.

S. Segert, “Sprachliche Bemerkungen zu einigen aramäischen Texten von Qumran”, Arch Or 33 (1965), 190–206.

M. Sokoloff, “Notes on the Aramaic Fragments of Enoch from Qumran Cave 4”, Maarav l (1978/9), 201–203.

Palestinian Inscriptions and Documents (Roman Period)

Collections of Texts

K. Beyer (see above: Qumran Aramaic, Collection of texts), pp.339–53.

J. Fitzmyer and D.Harrington (see above: Qumran Aramaic, Collection of texts).

J. Naveh, ‘Al psiphis wa-’even [On Mosaic and Stone] (Jerusalem, 1978).

———, ‘Al heres w-gome’ [On Sherd and Papyrus] (Jerusalem, 1992).


P. Dion, “Les types epistolaires hebreo-araméens”, RB 86 (1979), 544–79.

J. Fitzmyer, “Some Notes on Aramaic Epistolography”, JBL 93 (1974), 201–25.

E.Y. Kutscher, “The Language of the Hebrew and Aramaic Letters of Bar Kochba and his Contemporaries [in Hebrew]”, HAS 136–53 [Hebrew section].

E. Puech, ADB 5 (1992), 130–135.

S. Segert, “Zur Orthographie und Sprache der aram: Texte von Murabba’at”, ArchOr 31 (1963), 122–37.

Aramaic In First Century Palestine

**J. Barr, “What Language did Jesus Speak? Some Remarks of a Semitist”, BJRL 52 (1970/1), 9–29.

H. Birkeland, The Language of Jesus (Oslo, 1954).

M. Black, “Aramaic Studies and the Language of Jesus”, BZAW 103 (1968), 17–28.

G. Dalman, The Words of Jesus (1902) [2nd edition of German original, 1930].

M. Delcor, “Le Targum de Job et l’araméen du temps de Jesus”, RevScRel 47 (1973), 232–61.

J.A. Emerton, “The Problem of Vernacular Hebrew in the First Century AD and the Language of Jesus”, JTS ns 24 (1973), 1–23.

**J. Fitzmyer, A Wandering Aramean, 6–10, 38–43.

**J. Greenfield, “The Languages of Palestine”, H.H. Paper (ed.), Jewish Languages (New York, 1978), 143–54.

G. Lasry, “Some Remarks on the Jewish Dialectal Aramaic of Palestine during the First Centuries of the Christian Era”, Augustinianum 8 (1968) 468–76.

A. Meyer, Jesu Muttersprache (1896).

R. Ott, “Um die Muttersprach Jesu”, NT 9 (1967), 1–25.

C. Rabin, “Hebrew and Aramaic in the First Century”, in Safrai-Stern, The Jewish People in the First Century II (Assen, 1976), 1037–9.

Schurer-Vermes-Millar, The History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1979), II, 23–8.

G. Vermes, Jesus the Jew (London, 1976), 52–4, 160–8, 188–91.

Aramaic and New Testament Studies

M. Black, An Aramaic Approach to the Gospels and Acts (3rd edn Oxford, 1967). Rev. Greenfield, JNES 31 (1972), 58–61; Fitzmyer, CBQ 30 (1968), 417–28.

M. Casey, Aramaic Sources of Mark’s Gospel (1998).

A. Diez Macho, Targum y Nuevo Testamento: Studi e Testi (1964), 153–85.

———, “Arameo del Targum Pal.: Sustrato arameo de Evangelios y Actos y critica neotestamentaria”, Neofiti: Numeros (Madrid, 1974), 78*–102*.

J.A. Emerton, “Maranatha and Epphatha”, JTS ns 18 (1967), 427–31.

**J.A. Fitzmyer, “A Wandering Aramean”, ch.1–5, JBL 99 (1980), 5–21.

**———, “Methodology in the Study of the Aramaic Substratum of Jesus’ Sayings in the NT”, in J. Dupont (ed), Jesus aux origines de la christologie (revised edn Leuven, 1989), 77–102, 418–9.

P. Grelot, “L’arriere plan araméen du Pater”, RB 9 (1984), 531–56.

J. Jeremias, (various books).

R. Le Deaut, Liturgie juive et nouveau testament (Rome, 1965) [English translation, The Message of the NT and the Aramaic Bible (Rome, 1982)].

**M. McNamara, The NT and the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch (Rome, 1966).

E.C. Maloney, Semitic Interference in Marcan Syntax (Chico, 1980).

G. Mussies, “The Use of Hebrew and Aramaic in the Greek NT”, NTS 30 (1984), 416–32.

P. Nickels, Targum and NT: A Bibliography Together with a NT Index (Rome, 1967).

J. Ramon Diaz, “Palestinian Targum and NT”, NT 6 (1963), 75–80.

H.P. Ruger, “Aramäisch II: im NT”, TRE 3 (1978), 602–10.

G. Schwarz, `Und Jesus sprach’: Untersuchungen zur aramäischen Urgestalt der Worte Jesu (2nd edn Stuttgart, 1987). (And other books).

L.E. Stuckenbruck, “An Approach to the NT through Aramaic Sources: The Recent Methodological debate”, JSP 8 (1991), 3–29.

M. Wilcox, The Semitisms of Acts (Oxford, 1965) [Rev. Emerton, JSS 13 (1968), 282–97].

———, “Semitisms in the NT”, ANRW II.25.2 (1984), 978–1029.

P. Winter, “Luke 2:49 and Targum Yerushalmi”, ZNW 45 (1954), 145–79.

F. Zimmermann, The Aramaic Origin of the Four Gospels (New York, 1979) [Rev. Fitzmyer, Theol.Studies 41 (1980), 193–5; Harrington, CBQ 42 (1980), 285–7].


Dictionaries and Grammar

Jean-Hoftijzer (see above: Old Aramaic, Dictionaries).

J. Cantineau, Le nabateen, 2 vols (Paris, 1930, 1932).

W.J. Jobling, Nabataean-Aramaic: A Provisional Lexicon (Kensington, MD, 1995).

F. al-Khraysheh, Die Personennamen in den nabataischen Inschriften des CIS (Marburg, 1986).

A. Negev, “Personal Names in the Nabataean Realm”, Qedem 32 (1991).

Main Collections of Texts

CIS 2.2

Cooke, North Semitic Inscriptions.

Cantineau, Le nabateen 2.

J. Healey, “The Nabataean Tomb Inscriptions of Mada’in Salih”, JSS Suppl.1 (1993).

E. Littmann, Semitic Inscriptions: Aramaic Nabatean Inscriptions (Leiden, 1914).

A. Negev, The Inscriptions of Wadi Haggag Sinai (Jerusalem, 1977).

General background

C. Auge and J-M. Dentzer, Petra: the Rose-Red City (London, 2000).

I. Browning, Petra (London, 1973) [On travellers, archaeology].

N. Glueck, Deities and Dolphins: The Story of the Nabateans (London, 1966).

**D. Graf, ADB 4 (1992), 970–3.

P.C. Hammond, The Nabateans: Their History, Culture, and Archaeology (Gothenburg, 1973).

J. Hoftijzer, Religio Aramaica (Leiden, 1968), ch.3.

A. Kammerer, Petra et la Nabatene, 2 vols (Paris, 1929–30).

J.I. Lawlor, The Nabateans in Historical Perspective (Grand Rapids, 1974).

M. Lidner, Die Konige von Petra (Ludwigsburg, 1968).

——— (ed.), Petra und das Konigreich der Nabataer (3rd edn, Munich, 1980).

A. Negev, “The Nabateans and the Provincia Arabia”, ANRW Principat II.8 (1977), 520–686.

———, “Nabatean Inscriptions in Southern Sinai”, BA 45 (1982), 21–5.

———, “Obodas the God”, IEJ 36 (1986), 56–60.

M. O’Connor, “The Arabic Loanwords in Nabatean Aramaic”, JNES 45 (1986), 213–29.

Rheinisches Landmuseum, Bonn, Die Nabataer (Bonn, 1981).

D. Sourdel, Les cultes du Hauran a l’epoque romaine (Paris, 1972).

J. Starcky, “Petra et la Nabatene”, DBS 7 (1966), 886–1017.

**———, “The Nabateans: A Historical Sketch”, BA 18 (1955), 84–106.

J. Teixidor, The Pagan God (Princeton, 1977), ch.3.

R. Wenning, “Die Nabataer: Denkmaler und Geschichte”, NT et Orbis Antiquus, 3 (1987).



Jean-Hoftijzer (see above: Old Aramaic, Dictionaries)

J.K. Stark, Personal Names in the Palmyrene Inscriptions (Oxford, 1971) [Rev. Degen, BO 29 (1972), 210–16].


J. Cantineau, Grammaire du palmyrenien epigraphique (Cairo, 1935).

F. Rosenthal, Die Sprache der palmyrenischen Inschriften (Leipzig, 1936).

Collections of Texts

CIS 2.3

Cooke, North Semitic Inscriptions.

J. Cantineau, “Tadmorea”, Syria 1933, 1936, 1938. [compare also 1931]

———, and others, Inventaire des inscriptions de Palmyre I-XII (Beirut, 1930–1975).

C. Dunant, Le sanctuaire de Baalshamin a Palmyre, III: Les inscriptions (Institut suisse de Rome, 1971) [Rev. Degen, WO 8 (1975/6), 128–34.

M. Gawlikowski, Recueil d’inscriptions palmyreniennes (Paris, 1974) [Rev. Aggoula in Syria (1977), 281–5].

D.R. Hillers and E. Cussini, Palmyrene Aramaic Texts (Baltimore, 1996). [Collects all published texts, with glossary].

General background

K. Assa’d and E.M. Ruprechtsberger, Palmyra: Geschichte, Kunst, Kultur (Linz, 1987).

M.A.R. Colledge, The Art of Palmyra (London, 1976).

H.J.W. Drijvers, The Religion of Palmyra (Leiden, 1977).

———, “Hatra, Palmyra, und Edessa”, ANRW II Principat 8 (1977), 837–63, 899–902.

J. Fevrier, Essai sur l’histoire politique et economique de Palmyre (Paris, 1931).

———, La religion des palmyreniens (Paris, 1931).

J. Hoftijzer, Religio Aramaica, ch.4.

J. Milik, Dedicaces faites par des dieux (Paris, 1972).

**J. Starcky, Palmyre (Paris, 1952).

———, “Palmyre”, DBS 6 (1960), 1066–1103.

J. Starcky and M. Gawlikowski, Palmyre (Paris, 1985).

J. Teixidor, The Pagan God, ch.4.

———, The Pantheon of Palmyra (Leiden, 1979).

———, “Un port romain du desert: Palmyre et son commerce d’Auguste a Caracalla”, Semitica 34 (1984).

E. Will, Les Palmyreniens: La Venise des sables (Paris, 1992)



S. Abbadi, Die Personennamen der Inschriften aus Hatra (Hildersheim, 1983).


B. Aggoula, Inventaire des inscriptions hatreennes (Paris, 1991).

K. Beyer, Die aramäische Inschriften aus Assu, Hatra... (Gottingen, 1998).

F. Vattioni, “Le iscrizioni di Hatra”, AION Supplement 28 (1981) [Inscriptions 1–341].

———, “Hatra”, AION Supplement 54 (1996).

(The Hatran inscriptions were originally published in Arabic in Sumer, then republished by Caquot in Syria 1952, 1953, 1955, 1963, 1964 (= nos 1–206); Teixidor in Sumer1964 (= nos 207–13); and Degen in WO 1970, Ex Oriente Lux 1973–4, NESE 1978 (= nos 281–335). Further inscriptions are published in Sumer 1978 (nos 336–41), 1981 (no 342), 1982 (nos 343–4), 1983 (nos 345–87), 1984, 1985/6. B. Aggoula has a series of studies on the inscriptions in Berytus 1969, MUSJ 1972, 1975/6, Semitica 1977, Syria 1975, 1983, 1985, 1986, 1987, Aula Orientalis 1983).

Grammatical studies

A. Caquot, “L’araméen de Hatra”, GLECS 9 (1960/3), 87–9.

R. Degen, “Die Genetivverbindung im Aramäischen der Hatra-Inschriften”, Orientalia 36 (1967), 76–80.

General background

R. Bertolino, “La cronoliga di Hatra: Interazione di archeologia e di epigrafia”, AION Suppl.83 (1995).

H.J.W. Drijvers, “Hatra, Palmyra, und Edessa”, ANRW II.8 (1977), 803–37, 897–9.

J. Hoftijzer, Religio Aramaica, ch.5.

A. Maricq, “Hatra de Sanatruq”, Syria 32 (1955), 273–86.

———, “Les dernieres annees de Hatra: L’alliance romaine”, Syria 34 (1957), 288–96.

W. al-Salihi, “The Shrine of Nebo at Hatra”, Iraq 45 (1983), 140–5.

J.B. Segal, “Arabs at Hatra..”, JSS 31 (1986), 57–80.

J.Teixidor, “The Kingdom of Adiabene and Hatra”, Berytus 17 (1967/8), 1–11.

———, “Notes Hatreennes”, Syria 41 (1964), 273–84; 43 (1966), 91–7.

———, “Les arcades de Barmaren a Hatra”, Semitica 30 (1980), 63–7.

J. Walker, “The Coins of Hatra”, Numismatic Chronicle 18 (1958), 167–72.

Proto-Syriac (1st–3rd cent. AD)


H.J.W. Drijvers, Old Syriac (Edessean) Inscriptions (Leiden, 1982). [no translation] Rev. Brock, BSOAS 36 (1973), 133–4 [now replaced by Drijvers-Healey, below].

———, “A Tomb for the Life of a King: A Recently Discovered Edessene Mosaic with a Portrait of King Abgar the Great”, Le Muséon 95 (1982), 167–89 [see also Segal, Syria 60 (1983), 107–10].

*H.J.W. Drijvers and J.F. Healey, The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene (Leiden, 1998). [Standard collection of texts, including legal documents of 240s, with translation].

F. Vattioni, “Le iscrizioni siriache antiche”, Augustinianum 13 (1973), 279–338 [transliteration and Italian translation].

J. Goldstein, “Deed of Sale of AD 243 (P. Dura 28)”, JNES 25 (1966), 1–16.

P. Mesopotamia A and B (dated 240, 242)

  • J. Teixidor, CRAIBL (1990), 146–66
  • ———, Semitica 41/2 (1993), 195–208
  • S.P. Brock, Aram 3 (1991), 259–67

Grammatical studies etc.

K. Beyer, “Der reichsaramäische Einschlag in der altesten syrischen Literatur”, ZDMG 116 (1966), 242–54.

K. Jenni, “Die altsyrischen Inschriften”, Theologische Zeitschrift 21 (1965), 371–85.

J. Pirenne, “Aux origines de la graphie syriaque”, Syria 40 (1963), 101–37.

General background

H.J.W. Drijvers, “Hatra, Palmyra, und Edessa”, ANRW II.8 (1977), 863–96, 902–4.

J.B. Segal, “Pagan Monuments in the Vilayet of Urfa”, Anatolian Studies 3 (1953), 97–119.

———, Edessa: `The Blessed City’ (Oxford, 1970).

Other Inscriptions of the Parthian Period


E. Puech, “Inscriptions araméennes du Golfe”, Transeuphratene 14 (1998), 31–55.


K. Tsereteli, “The Armazian Script”, in T. Mgaloblishvili (ed), Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus (Richmond, 1998), 155–62.

Aramaic inscriptions from Armenia: Revue des etudes armeniennes 3 (1966); 8 (1971).


I. Gershevitch, “The Alloglottography of Old Persian”, Transactions of the Philological Society (1979), 114–90 [138–43 on Aramaic].

J. Naveh, “The North Mesopotamian Aramaic Script Type in the Late Parthian Period”, Israel Oriental Studies 2 (1972), 293–304.

M. Nordio, “Lessico dei logogrammi aramaici in medio-persiano”, Quaderni semin. di Iranistica 12 (Venice, 1980) [Rev. Belardi, Oriens Antiquus 22 (1983), 159–61].

H.J. Nyberg, B. Utas, C.Toll (eds), Frahang i Pahlavik (Wiesbaden, 1988) [Rev S. Shaked, JAOS 113 (1993), 75–81].

M. Snyczer, Etudes semitiques et samaritaines. J. Margain.

R. Stiehl, “Worterverzeichnis aramäischer Inschriften und anderer Urkunden aus parthischer Zeit”, F. Altheim and R. Stiehl, Geschichte der Hunnen IV (1962), 110–25.

C. Toll, “Die aramäische Ideogramme im Mittelpersischen”, ZDMG Suppl.8 (Stuttgart, 1990), 25–45.


M.L. Chaumont, “Les ostraca de Nisa. Nouvelle contribution a l’histoire des Arsacides”, JAS 256 (1968), 11–35.

M. Sznycer, Semitica 5 (1955), 66–98; 12 (1962), 105–26; 13 (1963), 31–7.

E. Bickermann, “On Sstracon 1760 of AD 91”, BO 23 (1966), 15–17.



Dictionaries (also for Jewish Babylonian Aramaic)

G. Dalman, Aramäisch-neuhebräisches Handwörterbuch zu Targum: Talmud und Midrasch (2nd ed.; Gottingen, 1938).

M. Jastrow, A Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli, and Yerushalmi and the Midrashic Literature ( 2 vols.; New York, 1903 and reprints).

A. Kohut, The Aruch Completum of Nathan b. Yehiel (Vilna, 1878–1892; 2nd ed., 1926, NY; reprinted 1957; Jerusalem, 1971; 8 vols.). [Review by W. Bacher, ZDMG 47 (1893), 487–514].

S. Krauss, Additamenta ad Librum Aruch Comletum (Vienna, 1937 and reprints).

———, Griechische und lateinische Lehnworter in Talmud, Midrasch, und Targum (Berlin, 1898–9; 2 vols). On this work see Zuntz, JSS l (1956), 129–40; and D. Sperber, Essays on Greek and Latin in the Mishna (1982), 1–74.

D. Sperber, A Dictionary of Greek and Latin Legal Terms in Rabbinic Literatue (Ramat Gan, 1984).

M. Sokoloff, A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period (Ramat Gan, 1990).

Grammars, etc.

G. Dalman, Grammatik des judisch-palastinisches Aramäisch (Leipzig, 1905; reprinted 1960). [primarily a grammar of Targum Onkelos and Jonathan]

S.E. Fassberg, A Grammar of the Palestinian Targum Fragments from the Cairo Geniza (Cambridge, MA, 1990).

D. Golomb, A Grammar of Targum Neofiti (Chico, 1985). [Review by E.M. Cook, Maarav 4 (1987), 93–100].

E.Y. Kutscher, Studies in Galilean Aramaic (Ramat Gan, 1976).

J.A. Lund, “The First Person Singular Past Tense of the Verb hwh in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic”, Maarav 4 (1987), 191–199.

C. Levias, A Grammar of Galilaean Aramaic (New York, 1986). [in Hebrew]

T. Muraoka, “A Study in Palestinian Jewish Aramaic”, Sefarad 46 (1985), 3–21.

H. Odeberg [see below: some texts].

M. Schlesinger, “Das aramäisches Verbum im jerusalemitischen Talmud”, MGWJ 16 (1899), 1–9.

W. Stevenson, Grammar of Palestinian Jewish Aramaic (Oxford, 1924).

A. Tal, “Studies in Palestinian Aramaic”, Leshonenu 44 (1979/80), 43–65 [on demonstratives; in Hebrew].

Linguistic Surveys

E.M. Cook, “A New Perspective on the Language of Onkelos and Jonathan”, in D.R.G. Beattie and M.J. McNamara, The Aramaic Bible (Sheffield, 1994), 142–156.

R. Degen, “Aramäisch III: Judisch-Aramäisch”, TRE 3 (1978), 610–613.

S. Kaufman, “Dating the Language of the Palestinian Targums”, in Beattie-McNamara”, The Aramaic Bible, 118–141.

E.Y. Kutscher, “Judisch-Aramäisch”, HAS 166–175; and Encyclopedia Judaica 2.270–274.

R. Macuch, “Recent Studies in Palestinian Aramaic”, BSOAS 50 (1987), 437–448. [on Golomb, G1b]

M. Sokoloff, “The Current State of Research on Galilean Aramaic”, JNES 37 (1978), 161.

A. Tal, “The Dialects of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic”, Sefarad 46 (1986), 441–448.

Some Texts

L. Barth, An Analysis of Vat. 30 [B.Rabba] (New York, 1973).

M. Klein, Geniza Manuscripts of the Palestinian Targum to the Pentateuch 1–2 (Cincinnati, 1986).

J.T. Marshall, Manual of the Aramaic Language of the Palestinian Talmud (Leiden, 1929).

H. Odeberg, The Aramaic Portions of Bereshit Rabba, with a Grammar [syntax only] of Galilean Aramaic (2 vols; Lund, 1939).

C. Sirat and others, La Ketouba de Cologne (Opladen, 1986). [Aramaic-Greek, Egypt AD 417]

M. Sokoloff, The Geniza Fragments of Bereshit Rabba (Jerusalem, 1982).

M. Sokoloff and Y. Yahalom, Jewish Palestinian Aramaic Poetry from Late Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1999).

G. Svedlund, A Selection of Texts in Galilean Aramaic (Jerusalem, 1967).

———, The Aramaic Portions of Pesiqta de Rab Kahana (Uppsala, 1974).


N. Avigad, Beth She‘arim II 1 (Jerusalem, 1971). [Hebrew and Aramaic inscriptions]

K. Beyer [see above: Middle Aramaic, Qumran Aramaic].

Fitzmyer-Harrison, A Manual of Palestinian Aramaic Texts (Rome, 1978), Appendix.

J. Frey, Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaicarum 1–2 (1936; Vol. 1 reprinted 1975, ed. B. Lifshitz).

W. Horbury and D. Noy, Jewish Inscriptions of Graeco-Roman Egypt (Cambridge, 1992).

J. Naveh [see above: Middle Aramaic, Palestinian Inscriptions].

J. Naveh and S. Shaked [see below: Late Aramaic, Jewish Babylonian].

D. Noy, Jewish Inscriptions of Western Europe 1–2 (Cambridge, 1993–1995).


**P.S. Alexander, “Jewish Aramaic Translations of Hebrew Scriptures”, in M.J. Mulder (ed), Miqra (Assen, 1988), ch.7.

**———, ABD 6 (1992), 320–331.

*B.M. Bokser, “An Annotated Bibliographical Guide to the Study of the Palestinian Talmud”, in J. Neusner (ed), The Study of Ancient Judaism, 2: The Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds (New York, 1981), 1–119. [Also in ANRW 2.19.2 (1979), 139–256; 201–208 on language].

D. Goldblatt, “Bibliography on Judaism”, in J. Neusner (ed), Understanding Rabbinic Judaism (New York, 1974), 383–402, esp. 396–402.

**Schürer-Vermes-Millar, History of the Jewish People., 1 (Introduction, E) (Edinburgh, 1973).

M. Sokoloff and J. Yahalom, “Aramaic Piyyutim from the Byzantine Period”, JQR 75 (1985), 309–321.

**H.L. Strack, G. Stemberger, Introduction to Talmud and Midrash (Edinburgh, 1991).

**J.T. Townsend, “Rabbinic Sources”, The Study of Judaism (New York, 1972), 37–80.

Samaritan Aramaic


*R. Macuch, Grammatik des samaritanische Aramäisch (Berlin-New York, 1982) [Review by Segert in WZKM 75 (1983), 209–213].

H. Petermann, Grammatik der samaritanische Sprache (Leipzig, 1873).

L. Vilsker, Manuel d’araméen samaritain (Paris, 1981; translation from Russian edn, 1974).


A. Tal, A Dictionary of Samaritan Aramaic (Leiden, 2000).


Inscriptions (mostly in Hebrew, but a few Aramaic)

M. Baillet, “Deux inscriptions samaritaines”, RBibl 71 (1964), 57–72. [one is Aramaic]

S. Yonick, “The Samaritan Inscription from Siyagha”, Studii Biblici Franciscani Liber Annuus 17 (1967), 162–221. [bibliography, 165–169]


A. Tal, The Samaritan Targum (3 vols; Tel Aviv, 1980–1983).

Memar Marqah

J. Macdonald, “Memar Marqah”, BZAW 84 (2 vols; 1963) [Review by Ben Hayyim, BO 23 (1966), 186–191].

Z. Ben Hayyim, Tibat Marqeh: A Collection of Samaritan Midrashim (Jerusalem, 1988) [Review by Boid, BO 47 (1990), 736–739].

Defter (oldest part of liturgy)

A.E. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy (London, 1909) 1.1–92.

Z. Ben Hayyim, The Literary and Oral Traditions of Hebrew and Aramaic among the Samaritans (Jerusalem, 1967) 3.2.41–274. [in Hebrew]


ed. M. Gaster (English translation; London, 1927).

ed. Z. Ben Hayyim (with Hebrew translation), Tarbiz 14–15 (1943–1944).

Melis (Hebrew/Aramaic/Arabic Lexicon)

Z. Ben Hayyim, The Literary and Oral Traditions..., 2.437–616.


**R.T. Anderson, ABD 5 (1992), 941–947.

A.D. Crown (ed.), The Samaritans (Tübingen, 1989). [includes Tal on literature, Macuch on Samaritan Aramaic]

M. Gaster, The Samaritans (London, 1925).

J.C. Greenfield, “Samaritan Hebrew and Aramaic in the work of Z Ben Hayyim”, Biblica 45 (1964), 261–268.

S. Kohn, “Zur Sprache, Literatur, und Dogmatik der Samaritaner”, Abh.Kunde d.Morg. 4.4 (1876).

A. Loewenstamm, in Encyclopedia Judaica 1.510–511 (on Asatir), 14.752–757.

J. Macdonald, The Theology of the Samaritans (London, 1964).

R. Pummer, “The Present State of Samaritan Studies”, JSS 21 (1976), 39–61; 22 (1977), 26–38.

J. Ramon Diaz, “Arameo samaritano”, Estudios Biblicos 18 (1959), 171–178.

J.-P. Rothschild and G.D. Sixdenier (eds), Études samaritaines (Leuven-Paris, 1988).

G. Sixdenier, “La langue du Targum samaritain: Observations sur son evolution”, JAS 272 (1984), 223–235.

**A. Tal, “The Samaritan Targum of the Pentatuech”, in M.J. Mulder (ed.), Miqra (Assen, 1988), 189–216.


A.D. Crown, A Bibliography of the Samaritans (Metuchen, NJ, 1984).

L.A. Mayer (ed. D. Broadribb), Bibliography of the Samaritans (Leiden, 1964) [Supplements: Noja, AION 33 (1973); Weiss AION 35 (1975); and Margain, Semitica 27 (1977)].

Christian Palestinian Aramaic (CPA)


F. Schultess, Lexicon Syropalestinum (Berlin, 1901).

Grammars, etc.

M. Bar Asher, Palestinian Syriac Studies (Jerusalem, 1977). [in Hebrew]

———, “Le Syro-Palestinien: Études grammaticales”, JAS 276 (1988), 27–59.

E. Puech, “Notes d’onomastique christo-palestinienne de Kh. es Samra”, AION 43 (1986), 505–526.

F. Schultess, Grammatik des christlichen palästinischen Aramäisch (Tübingen, 1924).

*C. Müller-Kessler, Grammatik des christlichen pälastinischen Aramäisch 1 (Hildesheim, 1991).


The main texts have been edited by M. Black, H. Duensing, A.S. Lewis, G. Margoliouth, and F. Schultess. The Old Testament fragments are being reedited by M. Goshen-Gottstein, The Bible in the Syro-Palestinian Version, Part 1: Pentateuch and Prophets (Jerusalem, 1973), and all early texts are being republished, with improved readings by Müller-Kessler and Sokoloff:

C. Müller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, A Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic 1 (1977) [OT]; 2 (2 vols; 1998) [NT]; 3 (1966) [XL Martyrs of Sinai, Eulogios, Anastasia].

A. Desreumaux, Codex Sinaiticus Zosimi Rescriptus (Lausanne, 1997)

S.P. Brock, Catalogue of the Syriac Fragments (New Finds) in the Library of the Monastery of St Catherine (Athens, 1995), esp. 122–128.

Recent finds include: M. Baillet, “Un livret magique en christo-palestinien a l’Universitè de Louvain”, Le Muséon 76 (1973), 375–401; J.T. Milik, “Un inscription et une lettre en araméen christo-palestinien”, RBibl 50 (1953), 526–539; C. Perrot, “Un fragment christo-palestinien découvert à Khirbet Mird (Actes X 28–29, 32–41)”, RBibl 70 (1963), 506–555.


A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922), 335–339.

F.C. Burkitt, “Christian Palestinian Literature”, JTS 2 (1901), 174–185.

A. Desreumaux, “La naissance d’une nouvelle écriture araméenne à l’époque byzantine”, Semitica 37 (1987), 95–107.

R. Duval, “La littérature syriaque” (3rd ed.; Paris, 1907), 43–48.

B.M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament (Oxford, 1977), 75–82. [Review by F. Rosenthal, AF 144–159.]


A section on CPA is included in S.P. Brock, Syriac Studies: A Classified Bibliography (1960–1990) (Kaslik, 1996).

Jewish Babylonian Aramaic

Dictionaries, etc. [see also under G1]

J.N. Epstein, “Notes on Post-Talmudic Aramaic lexicography 1–2”, JQR ns 5 (1914/5), 233–251; 12 (1921/2), 299–390 (= Epstein, Studies 1.85–135).

L. Prijs, “Erganzungen zum talmud. aram. Worterbuch”, ZDMG 117 (1967), 266–286.

M. Sokoloff, “The Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: Progress and Prospects”, in M. Geller and others, Studia Aramaica (JSS Supplement 4, 1995), 189–197.

Grammars, etc.

J.N. Epstein, A Grammar of Babylonian Aramaic (Jerusalem-Tel Aviv, 1960) [in Hebrew; Review by Kutscher in Leshonenu 26 (1961/2), 149–183].

———, Studies in Aramaic Philology, ed. D. Boyarin (New York, 1978).

Y. Frank, Grammar for Gemara: An Introduction to Babylonian Aramaic (2nd ed.; Jerusalem, 1995).

T. Harviainen, “Diglossia in Jewish Eastern Aramaic”, Studia Orientalia 55 (1984), 95–114.

Y. Kara, Babylonian Aramaic in the Yemenite Manuscripts of the Talmud (Jerusalem, 1983). [in Hebrew]

L. Levias, A Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Babylonian Talmud (Cincinnati, 1900; reprinted 1971).

D. Marcus, A Manual of Babylonian Jewish Aramaic (Lanham, 1981).

S. Morag, Babylonian Aramaic: The Yemenite Tradition (Jerusalem, 1988)

M. Margolis, Lehrbuch der aramäischer Sprache des babylonisches Talmuds (Munich, 1910)

M. Schlesinger, Satzlehre der aramäischer Sprache des babylonischen Talmuds (Leipzig, 1928).


C.D. Isbell, Corpus of the Aramaic Incantation Bowls (Missoula, 1975).

———, “The Story of Aramaic Magical Incantation Bowls”, BA 41 (1978), 5–16.

H. Juusola, Linguistic Peculiarities in the Aramaic Magic Bowls (Helsinki, 1999).

B. Levine, “The Language of the Magical Bowls”, in J. Neusner (ed.), History of the Jews in Babylonia, 5 (Leiden, 1970), 343–375.

W.S. McCullough, Jewish and Mandean Incantation Bowls (Toronto, 1967).

J.A. Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur (Philadelpha, 1913).

J. Naveh and S. Shaked, Amulets and Magic Bowls (Jerusalem, 1984).

———, Magic Spells and Formulae: Aramaic Incantations of Late Antiquity (Jerusalem, 1993).

W.H. Rossell, A Handbook of Aramaic Magical Texts (New Jersey, 1953).


*D. Goldblatt, “The Babylonian Talmud”, in J. Neusner (ed.), The Study of Ancient Judaism (New York, 1981) 2.120–99 [also in ANRW 2.19.2 (1979), 257–336 (esp. 273–281 on Babylonian Aramaic)].

A. Steinsaltz, The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition (A Reference Guide) (New York, 1989). [61–77, on Aramaic].

J.T. Townsend [see above: Late Aramaic, Jewish Palestinian].


M.Z. Kaddari, The Grammar of the Aramaic of the Zohar (Jerusalem, 1971) [Review by Degen, ZDMG 122 (1972), 290–292]. [in Hebrew]



For Beginners
  • M.H. Goshen-Gottstein, A Syriac Glossary (Wiesbaden, 1979). [To accompany the texts in Brockelmann’s Grammatik]
  • W. Jennings, A Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament (Oxford, 1926).
  • G. Kiraz, Lexical Tools to the Syriac New Testament (Sheffield, 1994).
  • R. Kobert, Vocabularium Syriacum (Rome, 1956) [with supplement in Orientalia 39 (1970), 315–319 to accompany Kobert, Textus et Paradigmata Syriaca (Rome, 1952)]
Standard European Works
  • C. Brockelmann, Lexicon Syriacum (Berlin, 1895; 2nd ed., 1928).
  • L. Costaz, Dictionnaire syriaque-francais (Beirut, 1963; reprinted 1986).
  • R. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus (2 vols; Oxford, 1898–1901).
  • J. Payne Smith (Mrs Margoliouth), A Compendious Syriac Dictionary (Oxford, 1903 and reprinted).
Oriental Works
  • Bar ‘Ali (ed. G. Hoffmann, 1874 (Part 1), ed. R.J.H. Gottheil 1908 (Part 2).
  • Bar Bahlul, ed. R. Duval (2 vols; 1888–1891).
  • G. Cardahi, Al-Lobab: Sive Dictionarium Syro-Arabicum (2 vols; Beirut, 1887–1891).
  • T. Audo, Dictionnaire de la langue chaldeenne (2 vols; Mosul, 1897; reprinted Stockholm, 1979) [Syriac-Syriac]
  • J.E. Manna, Vocabulaire chaldeen-arabe (Mosul, 1900; reprinted Beirut, 1975)


  • A. Frey, Petite grammaire syriaque (Fribourg, 1984)
  • J. Healey, First Studies in Syriac (Birmingham, 1980)
  • G. Kiraz, The Syriac Primer (Sheffield, 1989)
  • T. Muraoka, Classical Syriac for Hebraists (Wiesbaden, 1987; 2nd ed. forthcoming)
  • L. Palacios, Grammatica Syriaca (Rome, 1954)
  • M. Pazzini, Grammatica Siriaca (Jerusalem, 1999)
  • T.H. Robinson, Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar (4th ed. Oxford, 1968)
  • A. Ungnad, Syrische Grammatik (Munich, 1913; reprinted Hildesheim, 1992)
Reference Grammars
  • C. Brockelmann, Syrische Grammatik (Leipzig, 1899, and many later editions)
  • L. Coztaz, Grammaire syriaque (2nd ed.; Beirut, 1964)
  • R. Duval, Grammaire syriaque (Paris, 1881; reprinted Amsterdam, 1969)
  • T. Muraoka, Classical Syriac: A Basic Grammar (Wiesbaden, 1997)
  • T. Nöldeke, Kurzgefasste syrische Grammatik (2nd ed.; Leipzig, 1898) [English translation, J.A. Crichton, A Compendious Syriac Grammar (London, 1904). The reprint of the 2nd German edition ed. A. Schall, (Darmstadt, 1966) has some supplementary material based on Nöldeke’s notes]

Histories of Syriac Literature

**M. Albert, “Langue et litterature syriaque”, in Christianismes orientaux: Introduction à l’etude des langues et des littératures (Paris, 1993), 297–372.

J.S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis (3 vols.; Rome, 1719–1728).

A. Baumstark, Geschichte der syrischen Literatur (Bonn, 1922; reprinted, 1968). [the standard reference work]

———, Die christliche Literaturen des Osten I (Leipzig, 191l).

**S.P. Brock, A Brief Outline of Syriac Literature (Kottayam, 1997).

**J.B. Chabot, La littérature syriaque (Paris, 1934).

**R. Duval, La littérature syriaque (3rd ed.; Paris, 1907).

de Lacy O’Leary, The Syriac Church and Fathers (London, 1909).

W.S. McCullough, A Short History of Syriac Christianity to the Rise of Islam (Chico, CA, 1982).

R. Macuch, Geschichte der spat- und neusyrischen Literatur (Berlin, 1976). [Review by Brock, JSS 23 (1978), 129–138.]

*I. Ortiz de Urbina, Patrologia Syriaca (2nd ed.; Rome, 1965). [new French edition in preparation by R. Lavenant]

W. Wright, A Short History of Syriac Literature (London, 1894).

There are recent histories of Syriac literature published in the Middle East by E. Barsoum (Arabic; 2nd ed.; Aleppo, 1956) and reprints; Syriac translation by Qamishli (1967); partial English translation by M. Moosa, 1978); by A. Abuna (Arabic; Beirut, 1970), and by P. Sarmas (Modern Syriac; Tehran, 1969/70).


S.P. Brock, “Syriac Inscriptions: A Preliminary Check List of European Publications”, AION 38 (1978), 255–271 [Reprinted, Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch.3; see also A. Desreumaux, AION 40 (1980), 704–708].

A.N. Palmer, “A Corpus of Inscriptions from Tur ‘Abdin and Environs”, Oriens Christianus 71 (1987), 53–139.

Bibliographical Aids

C. Moss, Catalogue of Syriac Printed Books and Related Literature in the British Museum (London, 1962). [Review by de Boer, Vetus Testamentum 12 (1962), 504–507; Review by Clemons in L’orient syrien 8 (1963), 469–484.]

P. Dirksen, An Annotated Bibliography of the Peshitta of the Old Testament (Leiden, 1989). [Supplement in Dirksen-van der Kooij (eds), The Peshitta as a Translation(Leiden, 1995), 221–236.]

S.P. Brock, Syriac Studies 1960–1990: A Classified Bibliography (Kaslik, 1996) [Collects together bibliographies in Parole de l’orient 4 (1973), 393–465; 1971–1980: Parole de l’orient 10 (1981/2), 291–412; 1981–85: Parole de l’orient 14 (1987), 289–360].

———, “Syriac Studies 1991–5: A Classified Bibliography”, Parole de l’Orient 23 (1998), 241–350.

———, “Select Bibliography”, in T. Muraoka, Classical Syriac: A Basic Grammar (Wiesbaden, 1997), 124–147.

**An introduction to Syriac studies will be found in J.H. Eaton (ed.), Horizons in Semitic Studies (Birmingham, 1980), 1–33.



E.S. Drower, R. Macuch, A Mandaic Dictionary (Oxford, 1963).

J.N. Epstein, “Mandäische Glossen”, Archiv Orientalni 17.2 (1950), 165–169.


*R. Macuch, Handbook of Clasical and Modern Mandaic (Berlin, 1965).

T. Nöldeke, Mandäische Grammatik (Halle, 1875) [Reprinted: ed. A. Schall (Darmstadt, 1964) with Nöldeke’s notes].


The main editors of Mandaean texts are M. Lidzbarski, E.S. Drower, and J.J. Buckley. For the incantation texts on bowls see E.M. Yamauchi, Mandaic Incantation Texts(New Haven, 1967) [Review by Sokoloff, Orientalia 40 (1971), 448–458; see also J. Naveh, “Another Mandaic Lead Roll”, Israel Oriental Studies 5 (1975), 47–53]. A selection of the most important religious texts in translation will be found in K. Rudolph, “Mandaean Sources”, in W. Förster (ed.), Gnosticism 2 (Oxford, 1971), 121–319.


E.S. Drower, The Mandeans of Iraq (Oxford, 1937;reprinted Leiden, 1962).

———, The Secret Adam (Oxford, 1960).

S. Gunduz, The Knowledge of Life, JSS Supplement 3 (1994) [Review by J.J. Buckley, JAOS 116 (1996), 301–302].

A. Klugkist, “The Origin of the Mandaic Script”, in H. Vanstiphout and others (eds), Scripta Signa Vocis (Groningen, 1986), 111–120.

R. Macuch (ed.), Zur Sprache und Literatur der Mandaer (Berlin, 1976) [Contains chapters by Macuch on grammar and lexicon, by Rudolph on editions of texts, by Segelberg on rite known as Coronation of Sislam Rabba, and by Macuch on bibliography since 1965].

K. Rudolph, Die Mandaer (2 vols; Gottingen, 1960–1961).

———, “Problems of a History of the Development of the Mandaean Religion”, History of Religions 8 (1969), 210–235.

———, “Die Religion der Mandaer”, in H. Gese (ed.), Die Religionen Altsyriens, Altarabiens, und der Mandaer (Stuttgart, 1970), 406–462.

T. Save-Soderberg, Studies in the Coptic Manichaean Psalmbook (Uppsala, 1949).

G. Widengren (ed), Der Mandaismus (Darmstadt, 1982).

E.M. Yamauchi, “The Present State of Mandaean Studies”, JNES 25 (1966), 88–96.

———, Gnostic Ethics and Mandaean Origins (Harvard, 1970) [Review by Rudolph, Theol. Lit.Zeitschr. 97 (1972), 733–737].

Modern Aramaic


I. Avinery, “The Israeli Contribution to the Study of Neo-Syriac”, Afro-Asiatic Linguistics 2 (1975), 201–209.

R. Contini, F. Pennachietti, M. Tosco (eds), Semitica: Serta Philologica C.Tsereteli Dicata (Turin, 1993).

W. Heinrichs (ed.), Neo-Aramaic Studies (Harvard Semitic Studies; Cambridge, MA, 1989).

R.D. Hoberman, The History of the Modern Aramaic Pronouns and Pronominal Suffixes”, JAOS 108 (1988), 557–575.

S. Hopkins, “Neo-Aramaic Dialects and the Formation of the Preterit”, JSS 34 (1989), 413–432.

**O. Jastrow, “The Neo-Aramaic Languages”, in R. Hetzron (ed.), The Semitic Languages (London, 1997), 334–377.

R. Macuch, “Recent Studies in Neo-Aramaic Dialects”, BSOAS 53 (1990), 213–223.

K.G. Tsereteli, “The Aramaic Dialects of Iraq”, AION 22 (1972), 245–250.

———, “Neu-aramäisch”, Berliner byzantinischer Arbeiten 43 (1972), 47–64.

———, “Zur Frage der Klassification der neu-aramäischen Dialekte”, ZDMG 127 (1977), 244–253.

Western Dialects (Ma‘lula, Bah‘a, Jubb ‘Addin, in Syria)


G. Bergstrasser, Glossar des neuaramäischen Dialekts von Ma‘lula (Leipzig, 1921).

Grammars, etc.

W. Arnold, Lehrbuch des Neuwestaramäischen, (Semitica Viva, series didactica l; 1989).

———, Das neuwestarämaische, V: Grammatik, (Semitica Viva 4.5; 1990).

W. Arnold and P. Behnstedt, Arabisch-aramäischen Sprachbeziehungen im Qalamun-Syrien: Eine dialektgeographische Untersuchung, (Semitica Viva 8; 1993).

D. Cohen, “Sur le systeme verbal du neo araméen de Ma‘lula”, JSS 24 (1979), 219–239.

C. Correll, “Untersuchungen zur Syntax der neuwestarämaischen Dialekte des Antilebanon”, Abh. Kunde d. Morg. 44.4 (1978).

A. Spitaler, Grammatik des neuaramäischen Dialekts von Ma‘lula (Antilebanon) (Leipzig, 1938) [Review by Rosenthal, Orientalia 8 (1939), 346–360].


W. Arnold, Das Neuwestarämaische I–IV: Texte, (Semitica Viva 4.1–4, 1989–91) [Bax‘a, 1989; Gubadin, 1990; Ma‘lula, 1991]

G. Bergstrasser, Neuaramäische Märchen und andere Texte aus Ma‘lula (Leipzig, 1915) [Review by Nöldeke, ZfAssyr 31 (1917–1918), 203–230].

V. Cantarino, Der neuaramäische Dialekt von Gubb ‘Addin (Chapel Hill, NC, 1961).

C. Correll, Materialien zur Kenntnis des neuaramäisches Dialekts von Bah‘a (Diss. Munich, 1969).


S. Reich, Études sur les villages araméens de l’Anti-Liban (Damascus, 1937).

Central Dialects (Tur ‘Abdin, Mlahso)


Y. Ishaq (ed.), Svensk-Turabdinskt Lexikon: Leksiqon Swedoyo-Suryoyo (Stockholm, 1988).

———, Definition of the Latin Alphabet and the English Glossary used in the Primer Toxu Qorena (no date, c.1989 [Orebro Sweden]).

Kyrillus Jacob and Asmar ElKhoury, The Guide: The First Literary Colloquial Syriac Dictionary (Stockholm, 1985).

H. Ritter, Die Volkssprache der syrischen Christen des Tur `Abdin. B. Wörterbuch (Beirut-Wiesbaden, 1979).

Grammars, etc.

O. Jastrow, Laut- und Formenlehre des neuaramäischen Dialekts von Midin im Tur ‘Abdin (3rd ed.; Wiesbaden, 1970).

———, Lehrbuch der Turoyo-Sprache, (Semitica Viva, series didactica 2; 1992).

———, Der neuaramäische Dialekt von Mlahso, (Semitic Viva 14; 1994). [Review by G. Goldenberg, JSS 43 (1998), 63–70].

H. Ritter, Turoyo: Teil C, Grammatik (Stuttgart, 1990).

A. Siegel, Laut- und Formenlehre des neuaramäischen Dialekts des Tur ‘Abdin (Hannover, 1923; reprinted Hildesheim, 1968).


E. Prym, A.Socin, Der neuaramäische Dialekt des Tur Abdin 1–2 (Gottingen, 1883).

H. Ritter, Turoyo: I-III (Beirut, 1967–1971).

Jan Sen-Diyarbakerli, Qale w Sayno (Orebro, Sweden, 1989).

———, Mi Cetmo lu Bahro (Orebro, 1989).


H. Anschutz, Die syrischen Christen vom Tur ‘Abdin (Wurzburg, 1984).

Y. Ishaq, “Turoy: From Spoken to Written Language”, in W. Heinrichs (ed.), Studies in Neo-Aramaic (1989), 189–199.

O. Jastrow, “The Turoyo Language Today”, Journal of the Assyrian Academic Society l (1985/6), 7–16.

———, “Mlahso: An Unknown Neo-Aramaic Language”, JSS 30 (1985), 265–270.

North-Eastern Dialects

S.E. Fox, “The Relationship of the Eastern Neo-Aramaic Dialects”, JAOS 114 (1994), 154–162.

S. Hopkins, “The Neo-Aramaic Dialects of Iran”, Irano-Judaica 4 (1999), 311–227.


Grammars, etc.

I. Avineri, The Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Zakho (Jerusalem, 1988) [in Hebrew; Review by Y. Sabar, JAOS 111 (1991), 653–656].

J.J. de Morgan, “Le dialecte israëlite de Sihneh”, Mission scientifique en Perse, Vol. 5 (Études linguistiques; Paris, 1904).

R. Duval, Les dialectes neo-araméens de Salamas (Paris, 1883).

I. Garbell, The Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Persian Azerbaijan (The Hague, 1965).

R.D. Hoberman, The Syntax and Semantics of Verb Morphology in Modern Aramaic: A Jewish Dialect of Iraqi Kurdistan (American Oriental Series; 1989).

G. Khan, The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Arbel (Leiden, 1999).

Y.Sabar, “The Quadriradical Verb in Eastern Neo-Aramaic Dialects”, JSS 27 (1987), 149–176.


S. Hopkins, “A Tale in the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Na ada”, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 12 (1989), 243–281.

R.J.H. Gottheil, “The Judaeo-Aramaean Dialect of Salamas”, JAOS 15 (1893), 297–310. [Gen.1]

A.Z. Idelson, Sippurim be-lashon ha-aramit ha-hadasha (Jerusalem, 1913).

J. Rivlin, Shirat Yehude ha-targum (Jerusalem, 1959).

Y. Sabar, A Neo-Aramaic Midrash on Beshallah (Exodus) (Wiesbaden, 1976) [Review by Boyarin Maarav 3 (1982), 99–114].

———, “Lel-Huza: Story and History in a Cycle of Lamentations for the Ninth of Ab in the Jewish Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Zakho”, JSS 21 (1976), 138–162.

———, Midrashim ba-Aramit Yehude Kurdistan (Jerusalem, 1984). [with Aramaic-Hebrew glossary]

———, The Book of Genesis in Neo-Aramaic (Jerusalem, 1983); Exodus..(1988); Numbers...(1993); Deuteronomy...(1994); Song of Songs... (1991).

J.B. Segal, “Neo-Aramaic Proverbs of the Jews of Zakho”, JNES 14 (1955), 251–270.


A. Ben-Jacob, Kehillot Yehude Kurdistan (1961).

E. Brauer, Yehude Kurdistan (1947).

D. Cohen, “Neo-Aramaic”, Encyclopaedia Judaica 6 (1971), 948–951.

S. Hopkins, “Yehude Kurdistan b-eres Yisrael uleshonam: Pe’amim”, Studies in Oriental Jewry 56 (1993), 50–74.

Y. Sabar, The Folk Literature of the Kurdistani Jews (London, 1982).

———, “On the Nature of the Oral Translation of the Book of Exodus in the Neo-Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Zakho”, Maarav 5/6 (1990), 311–317.

Christian: Urmia group


S. David, The First English-Chaldean Dictionary/Chaldean-English (Chicago, 1924).

A.J. Maclean, A Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac (Oxford, 1901)

A.J. Oraham, Dictionary of the Stabilized and Enriched Assyrian Language (Chicago, 1943).

V.V. Shumanov, Kunnash melle psiqa rushnaya-athuraya (St Petersburg, 1993).

[Russian-Modern Syriac]

Grammars, etc.

S.E. Fox, The Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Jilu, (Semitica Viva 16; 1997).

R. Hetzron, “The Morphology of the Verb in Modern Syriac (Christian Colloquial of Urmi)”, AOS 89 (1969), 112–127.

H. Jacobi, “Grammatik des thumischen Neuaramäisch (Nordostsyrien)”, Ahb.f.d.Kunde des Morgenlandes 40.3 (1973).

A.J. Maclean, Grammar of the Dialect of Vernacular Syriac as Spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan (Cambridge, 1895).

Q.I. Marogulov, (trans. O. Kapeliuk), Grammaire neo-syriaque pour écoles d’adultes (Paris, 1976; Russian original, 1935).

T. Nöldeke, Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache am Urmia-See und in Kurdistan (Leipzig, 1868; reprinted Hildesheim, 1974).

E.Y. Odisho, The Sound System of Modern Assyrian, (Semitica Viva 2; 1988).

H.J. Polotsky, “The Verb with Two objects in Modern Syriac (Urmi)”, Israel Oriental Studies 9 (1979), 204–227.

———, “Neusyrische Konjugation”, Orientalia Suecana 33/35 (1984/6), 323–332 [English translation in JSS 36 (1991), 263–277].

———, “Notes on Neo-Syriac Grammar”, Israel Oriental Studies 16 (1996), 11–48.

D.T. Stoddard, Grammar of the Modern Syriac Language (New Haven, 1855).

K. Tsereteli, Grammatik der modernen assyrischen Sprache (Leipzig, 1978) [translation of Russian original of 1964; Italian translation: Naples, 1970; English translation: Moscow, 1978).


E. Cerulli, F.A. Pennachietti, Testi neo-aramaici dell’Iran settentrionale (Naples, 1971).

J. Friedrich, Zwei russische Novellen in neusyrischen Übersetzung und Lateinschrift (Wiesbaden, 1960) [Review by Macuch, OLZ 57 (1962), 117–125; Polotsky, Orientalia31 (1963), 273–283 [= Polotsky, Collected Papers (Jerusalem, 1971), 617–627].

R. Macuch and E. Panoussi, Neusyrische Chrestomathie (Wiesbaden, 1974).

A. Merx, Neusyrische Lesebuch (Breslau/Tubingen, 1873).

F.A. Pennachietti and M. Tosco, Testi Neo-Aramaici dell’Unione Sovietica raccolti da Enrico Cerulli (Naples, 1991).

K. Tsereteli, Materials on Aramaic Dialectology, I: the Urmia Dialect (Tbilisi, 1965).

———, A Reader of the Modern Assyrian Language with a Dictionary (Tbilisi, 1958).


R. Macuch, Geschichte der spät- und neusyrischen Literatur (Berlin, 1976).

H. Murre-vand den Berg, From a Spoken to a Written Language: The Introduction and Development of Literary Urmia Aramaic in the Nineteenth Century (Leiden, 1999).

H.J. Polotsky, “Studies in Modern Syriac”, JSS 6 (1961), 1–32.

Christian: Mosul group

Grammars, etc.

I. Guidi, “Beitrage zur Kenntnis des neuaram: Fellihi-Dialekts”, ZDMG 37 (1883), 293–318.

G. Krotkoff, A Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Kurdistan (New Haven, 1982).

J. Rhetore, Grammaire de la langue soureth ou chaldeen vulgaire (Mosul, 1912).

Y. Sabar, “The Christian Neo-Aramaic Dialects of Zakho and Dihok”, JAOS 115 (1995), 33–51.

E. Sachau, “Skizze des Fellichi-Dialekts von Mosul”, Abh.k.Ak.Wiss (Berlin, 1865).

S.I. Sara, A Description of Modern Chaldean (The Hague, 1974).


M. Lidzbarski, Die neuaramäische Handschriften der kon, (Bibliothek zu Berlin 1–2; Weimar, 1896).

E. Sachau, “Über die Poesie in der Volkssprache der Nestorianer”, Sitz.ber.preuss.Ak.Wiss (1896).

A. Socin, Die neuaramäischen Dialekte von Urmia bis Mosul (Tubingen, 1882).

NB: Texts in Lidzbarski and Socin are in other dialects as well.

Christian: Hertevin

O. Jastrow, Der neuaramäische Dialekt von Hertevin (Provinz Siirt), (Semitica Viva 3; 1988) [Review by G. Goldenberg, JSS 38 (1993), 295–308].

Eastern Dialects: Modern Mandaic


R. Macuch, Handbook of Classical and Modern Mandaic (Berlin, 1965).


R. Macuch, Neumandaische Chrestomathie (Wiesbaden, 1989).

———, Neumandaische Texte im Dialekt von Ahwaz (Wiesbaden, 1993).


B. Poizat, Une bibliographie commentée pour le Neo-Araméen (Hildesheim, 1991).

G. Krotkoff, “An Annotated Bibliography of Neo-Aramaic”, in W. Heinrichs (ed.), Neo-Aramaic Studies (1989), 3–26.

Y. Sabar, “A Bibliography of Secondary Literature on Neo-Aramaic”, Jewish Language Review 1 (1981), 123–125; 2 (1982).